Glossary of Microbiology- chapters 1-3

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Too small to be seen by the unaided eye but large enough to be studied under a microscope.
Large enough to be perceived or examined by the unaided eye.
the branch of biomedicine concerned with the structure and function of the immune system.
The use of microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeasts, or biological substances, such as enzymes, to perform specific industrial or manufacturing processes
A single-celled or multicellular organism whose cells contain a distinct membrane-bound nucleus
The animal or plant on which or in which another organism lives
The procedure of assigning names to the kinds and groups of organisms listed in a taxonomic classification
the scientific and medical study of the causes and transmission of disease within a population
An organism of the kingdom Monera (or Prokaryotae), comprising the bacteria and cyanobacteria, characterized by the absence of a distinct, membrane-bound nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, and by DNA that is not organized into chromosomes. Also called moneran.
An organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on or in a different organism while contributing nothing to the survival of its host
The classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates natural relationships
Something that has mass and exists as a solid, liquid, gas, or plasma
A unit of matter, the smallest unit of an element, having all the characteristics of that element and consisting of a dense, central, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a system of electrons
a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton; enters into the structure of the atomic nucleus
an elementary particle with negative charge
A substance composed of atoms having an identical number of protons in each nucleus. Elements cannot be reduced to simpler substances by normal chemical means
A pure, macroscopically homogeneous substance consisting of atoms or ions of two or more different elements in definite proportions that cannot be separated by physical means
Chemical bond
Any of several forces or mechanisms, especially the ionic bond, covalent bond, and metallic bond, by which atoms or ions are bound in a molecule or crystal
Covalent Bond
A chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electrons, especially pairs of electrons, between atoms
consisting of molecules not having a dipole
Relating to or characterized by a dipole: a polar molecule. Ionizing when dissolved or fused: polar bonds or linkages
Ionic bond
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
An atom or a group of atoms that has acquired a net electric charge by gaining or losing one or more electrons
An ion or group of ions having a positive charge and characteristically moving toward the negative electrode in electrolysis
A negatively charged ion, especially the ion that migrates to an anode in electrolysis
A chemical compound that ionizes when dissolved or molten to produce an electrically conductive medium
Hydrogen bond
A chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to an electronegative atom, especially a nitrogen, oxygen, or flourine atom, usually of another molecule
A substance participating in a chemical reaction, especially a directly reacting substance present at the start of the reaction
A substance resulting from a chemical reaction
Separation into constituents by chemical reaction
A change or transformation in which a substance decomposes, combines with other substances, or interchanges constituents with other substances
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, which may be solids, liquids, gases, or a combination of these
A substance dissolved in another substance, usually the component of a solution present in the lesser amount
Capable of dissolving another substance
The smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or more atoms; a group of like or different atoms held together by chemical forces
a substance (a virus or toxin or immune serum) that is introduced into the body to produce or increase immunity to a particular disease.
A surrounding environment in which something functions and thrives
Pure culture
a culture containing a growth of a single kind of organism free from other organisms
Mixed culture
a culture containing a growth of multiple organisms
The growing of microorganisms, tissue cells, or other living matter in a specially prepared nutrient medium
having complex nutritional requirements <fastidious microorganisms> —used of bacteria that grow only in specially fortified artificial culture media
The maintenance of controlled environmental conditions for the purpose of favoring the growth or development of microbial or tissue cultures
A sample, as of blood or bacterial cells, spread on a slide for microscopic examination or on the surface of a culture medium
The usually circular area in which the image is rendered by the lens system of an optical instrument
A visible growth of microorganisms, usually in a solid or semisolid nutrient medium.
Synthetic media
chemically defined media with an exact formula content
Complex media/nonsynthetic
contains at least one ingredient which is not chmically definable
Enriched media
contains complex organic substances such as blood, serum or special growth factors
Selective media
A media that encourages specific microorganism growth
Differential Media
Grow several types of microorganisms and are designed to display visible differences among those organisms
Who developed Microscopy and the Scientific method?
Who is the father of Immunology and developed the Theory of Biogenesis?
Handwashing prevents the spread of disease
Aseptic surgery
Pure culture techniques, Koch's Postulates

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