Glossary of Microbial diseases of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems

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Name the Nine Bacterial Diseases of the Cario and Lymph systems:
Septicemia, Bacterial Endocarditis, Rheumatic fever, tauleremia, brucellosis, Anthrax, Gangrene, plague, Typhus
What is another name for septicemia?
blood poisoning
what happens in septicemia?
pathogenic bacteria multiply in blood
What is the etiology for septicemia?
generally gram-negative bacilli
What are the S/S for septicemia?
chills, fever; lymphangitis->septicemia->pupuric pustules->decreased B/P->anoxia->increase HR and Resp.->septic shock related to endotoxin release->coma and death
What is septic shock R/T in Septicemia?
endotoxin release after gram-neg rods are lysed
Endocarditis is what?
Inflammation of the endocardium (lining of the heart and valves)
Why are infections of the heart uncommon?
smooth surface of the endocardial cells make adherence difficult
What are two possible etiologies for Bacterial Endocarditis?
Alpha-hemolytic streptococci
Staphylococcus aureus
Where are alpha-hemolytic streptococci found?
In the oral cavity
What are alpha-hemolytic streptococci responsible for?
subacute bacterial endocarditis
What form of bacterial endocarditis are staphylococcus aureus responsible for?
What group is highly susceptible to bacterial endocarditis with the etiology of staphylococcus aureas?
IV drug users
Map out the pathogenesis of bacterial endocarditis
focal point of infection->blood->adherence and growth on the endocardium->form vegetations(clots+bacteria)->emboli break off and lodge into distant organs
If the vegetations from bacterial endocarditis lead to incompetent valves, what would be the S/S?
Fever, fatigue, anemia, heart mumur, petechiae in hands and feet
If vegetations from bacterial endocarditis manifest in the RV, what are the S/S?
resp. distress, cough
If the vegetations in bacterial endocarditis manifest into the LV, what are the S/S?
spots on skin-> can be fatal R/T brain and kidneys
The vegetations of bacterial endocarditis may also lead to what heart disease?
What potentially fatal disease inflames the heart and permenantly damages the valves?
Rheumatic Fever
What is the etiology for rheumatic fever?
Beta-hemolytic streptococci
(streptococcus pyogenes)
Map out the pathogenesis for Rhuematic Fever:
streptococcal infection (sore throat)->autoimmune response->damage to joints and heart
What are the S/S for Rhuematic fever?
joint pain, fever, subcutaneous nodules at joints, carditis
What groups are susceptible to rheumatic fever?
children between the ages of 4-18
Name a lymphatic disease that is transmitted from animals to humans:
What is the etiology for Tularemia?
Franciselia tularensis
What are the infection reserviors for Tularemia and how is transmitted?
rabbits, deer, squirrels, and muskrats
transmitted by ticks
What group is susceptible to tularemia?
hunters, animal breeders
What are the S/S of Tularemia?
local itis, ulcer at infection site, enlarged lymph nodes, shaking chills, debilitating headaches
Map out the pathogenesis for tularemia:
contact w/ infected animal->F. tularersis inoculated through break in skin->5-7 later-enlarged regional lymph nodes->septicemia->infection of organs->abscesses throughout body
If the F. tularensis bacteria is inhaled, what other pathology may it cause?
What disease does a gram-neg coccobacilli (Brucella) cause?
Who is susceptible to Brucellosis?
farmers, veterinarians, meat packers
Map out the pathogenesis of brucellosis:
contact with infected animal or their secretions(milk)->phagocytosis by macrophages->grow within the macrophage->enters lymph->blood->organs->leads to disability
What are the S/S of brucellosis?
weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite, rising fever late in the day(104 at night)
What disease primarily infects grazing animals but can also infect humans?
Name the three forms of Anthrax:
Cutaneous, Respiratory, and Gastrointestinal
What type of anthrax has the greatest mortality rate, but the lowest number of cases?
What form of anthrax has the highest incidence?
What is the etiology for anthrax?
bacillus anthracis
What are the susceptible groups for anthrax?
wool handlers
Map out the pathogenesis for anthrax:
endospores enter skin through cut->papule->vesicle->2-6 days black eschar->bacillus produces potentially lethal toxin that enters lymph and blood
If anthrax is inhaled what can happen?
high fever->difficulty breathing->pneumonia->death
What is a disease that is characterized by necrotic putrefication of soft tissue?
What is the etiology for gangrene?
Clostidium Perfringes
Map out the pathogenesis of gangrene:
pathogen enters deep wound->wound must be ischemic for C. perfringes to multiply->tissue damage->production of H and CO2-> crepitance(gas bubbles that make a crackling sound)-> necrosis and melanosis of overlying tissues->organ failure->shock->death
What is a highly fatal disease and is transmitted from animals to humans?
What is the Etiology for plague?
Yersinia pestis
What are the signs and symptoms of plague?
high fever, massive lymph nodes(buboes), black spots, staggering gait, restlessness, mental confusion
Map out the pathogenesis for plague:
flea looks for a new host after original host dies->flea bites human and reguritates bacteria->proliferates in blood and lymph->proliferates intracellularly within macrophages->release highly virulent organisms->buboes
What are the two forms of plague?
What is the difference between septicemic and pneumonic plague?
Microbe invades the circulatory system as opposed to being inhaled
Name an infectious disease where the microbe infects the endothelial cells and blocks small vessels:
Name the three types of Typhus:
Epidemic, Endemic Murine, and Spotted Fever
What is the etiology of typhus?
Rickettsia prowazekii
What is the vector of Epidemic Typhus?
infected body lice
Map out the pathogenesis of Epidemic Typhus:
infected body lice->inoculates wound with feces->R. prowazekii multiply in wound->enter blood->mulitply in endothelium of small vessels
What is the incubation period of epidemic Typhus?
8-12 days
What are the S/S of epidemic typhus?
unbearable headache, high fever, muscle aches, shaking chills, delerious or unconciousness, rapid death
Which out of the three forms of typhus is least severe?
Endemic Murine Typhus
What is the etiology for Endemic Murine Typhus?
Rickettsia Typhi
What is the vector for Endemic Murine Typhus?
What is the reservior for Endemic Murine Typhus?
mice and rats
What are the S/S for Endemic Murine Typhus?
10-14 days then crushing headache, muscle aches, small red spots
Who is at risk for Endemic Murine Typhus?
shipyard workers, grain storage workers
What is the Etiology for Spotted Fever?
Rickettsia rickettsii
What is the vector and reservior for spotted fever?
ticks and earlier generation of ticks
What are the S/S for spotted fever?
3-4 days-> fever, headache, rash develops within a week of the tick bite(rash moves distal to proximal)
Who is at risk for spotted fever?
people who live in wooded areas or pursue outdoor activites

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