Glossary of Micro 4

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___ heat is preferred (vs. dry heat)
→ faster penetration
→ better protein denaturation (water disrupts H-bonds)
Boiling waterat 100°C kills ___ and ___ but not ___ (ie. sterility not guaranteed)
bacteria and viruses

Use the the “___” to make sure autoclave is working properly
spore strip
Pasteurization: Original method: 63°C, 30 min.
- first used by Pasteur on beer, wine

Today: HTST Stands for: ___
→ 72°C, 15 sec., followed by rapid cool down
→ less adverse effect on ___ vs. original method
high temp, short time

___ are Cross links thymines in DNA (are caused by ____, which has ___ penetration of liquids, plastic, glass, etc and is only used for ____ sterilization)
thymine dimers
Ultraviolet light
____ radiation for ex : __rays, ___ rays
- Dislodges ____ → disrupts chemical bonds & break DNA
-___ penetration (due to higher energy)
X and gamma
Filter Sterilization: Create pores too small for ___ to pass through(Note:____ can pass through filters)

___ are chemicals with anti-microbial properties
Germicides: Goal is to reduce bacterial numbers to “____” levels
(complete sterility may or may not be achieved)
- Intended for use on _____
Two types of germicides:
1. _____ - for use on biological surfaces (eg. skin)
2. _______ - for use on inanimate surfaces (tend to be more toxic &/or irritating)

Factors influencing how well a germicidal chemical works:
• Time of exposure (not all microbes killed at same rate)
• Temperature of environment (less effective at lower temps)
• Concentration of germicide (higher is better, but beware toxicity)
• Presence of organic matter (soil, blood, pus form protective layer around microbes and reduce effectiveness of germicides)
• Number of microbes present
• Types of microbes present
Easiest to kill: Type ___
Hardest to kill: Type ___
Types of microbes present:____ - vegetative forms of bacteria; fungi; enveloped viruses
Group A
Types of microbes present:____ - Mycobacteria species; non-enveloped viruses
Group B
Types of microbes present: ____ - bacterial spores
Group C
Phenols's function: _____
denature proteins
Triclosan's function: ______
inhibits an enzyme req. for bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis
Alcohol's function: ____
-Dissolves lipids (disrupts bacterial membranes)
-Denatures proteins (& slower evaporation) if water present
Heavy metals' function: ____
- Denature & inactivate proteins by binding to sulfhydryl groups
Peroxides' function: _____
- Some protein denaturing activity
- Breaks down to H2O + O2 → kills anaerobes
Halogens' function: _____
denature proteins, nucleic acids
Biguanides' function: ______
Disrupts membranes, denatures proteins
Alkylating agents' function:
- Denature proteins and DNA by cross-linking organic groups
____ has skin irritation, neurotoxicity (if absorbed through skin)
Today it is used as a ____

Triclosan is a _____ phenol compound

Is it irritant or non?

Non irritating → widely used in consumer products
Is alcohol toxic or irritating?
Non-toxic & non-irritating → antiseptic uses

But: may not give complete sterility of skin
→ rapid evaporation = short exposure time
→ bacteria deep within pores survive
→ no effect on spores or some viruses
→ poor action if organic matter present
The following are _____
- Selenium for ____
Zinc compounds for ____
Mercury compounds(“____”)
Silver sulfadiazine for ___
-anti-fungal activity
-mouthwashes, shampoo, etc.
-burn wound ointment
-Chlorine is a _____
-Iodine is a ____
High concentrations of chlorine (Na hypochlorite) kills most ____ and ____
- low kills ____ but not ____
microbes and spores

bacteria but not spores
Which halogen is inactivated by organic matter?
True or False: Iodine is more toxic and less stable than Chlorine?
False, Iodine is more stable,less toxic
Types of Iodine:
“Tincture”= ___ and ____⇒ combined effect
• “______” (Iodine + hydrocarbon carrier molecule)
⇒ carrier slows & prolongs the release of iodine
-Betadine is an example of ____
Iodine + alcohol

True or False: Biguanides have low toxicity, non-irritability and don't adhere to skin/mucous membrane
False: they have low tox., are't irritable, but can bind to the skin and mucous membrane
→ antiseptic skin creams, mouthwashes, antibacterial soaps
→ catheters and other implanted surgical devices
→ chips inserted between tooth & gum for periodontal disease
Of the alkylating agents ____ has good action in the presence of organic material
Glutaraldehyde, therefore widely used for sterilizing medical / dental equipment
_____ and ____ are very toxic, explosive, potentially carcinogenic
(objects must be flushed with sterile air before use)
Ethylene Oxide and Propylene Oxide

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