Glossary of Micro - anaerobes
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- What do Clostridium spp. look like? What are some common characteristics?
- *G+ "boxcar" rod
*O2 tolerance varies
*found in soil
- What 2 disease forms are associated with C. perfringens?
- *post-traumatic gas gangrene
- What organism causes non-traumatic gas gangrene?
- C. septicum
- What are some virulence factors for C. perfringens?
- *variety of proteolytic and histotoxic enzymes
- What are some diagnostic characteristics of C. perfringens?
- *distinctive gram appearance
*double zone of hemolysis on SBA
- How is an infection with C. perfringens usually treated?
- *surgical debridement or amputation
- What are the 3 disease forms of C. botulinum?
- 1.Infant botulism
- How do kids get infant botulism?
- It occurs at weaning, when the change in diet causes a change in GI flora. Obtained from the environment esp. honey.
- How do people get food-borne botulism?
- *ingestion of pre-formed toxin
*From improperly canned foods
- What population is most likely to contract wound botulism?
- SC drug abusers.
- Describe the pathogenesis of C. botulinum.
- Synth a heat and acid-stable A+B toxin that binds the presynaptic membrane and inhibits release of ACh.
- What symptoms are seen with infection by C. botulinum?
- *descending flaccid paralysis
*slurred speech in adults, poor suck in peds
*difficulty swallowing and breathing
- How is infection with C. botulinum diagnosed?
- Detection of the toxin
- When is C. tetani usually acquired?
- Due to trauma.
- What happens following invasion of C. tetani?
- *synthesis of tetanospasmin toxin
*toxin binds at NMJ and travels up the axon to disseminate through nervoous system
*blocks release of GABA
- What symptoms are seen in infection with C. tetani?
- *muscle spasm
- How is an infection with C. tetani usually diagnosed?
- Based upon clinical findings only.
- What usually precedes an active C. difficile infection?
- Antibiotic treatment.
- What are the symptoms of C. difficile infection?
*nonspecific or pseudomembranous colitis
- How is pathogenesis mediated in infection with C. difficile?
- Synthesis of an exotoxin.
- How is infection with C. difficile treated? Is this usually successful?
- *metronidazole, or vancomycin, or probiotics
*relapse occurs in 20% of pts.
- Where is propionibacterium normally found? What kind of disease is it associated with?
- *normal flora of skin, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles
*common cause of device-related meningitis
- What does Actinomyces look like? Where is it normally found? What condition is it associated with?
- *G+ branching rod (sometimes confused with Nocardia)
*normal flora of oropharynx
*agent for Lumpy Jaw
- What are two virulence factors for Bacteroides fragilis?
- *antiphagocytic capsule
- What type of infection does Bacteroides typically cause?
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