Glossary of MicroFinal 2
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- How are mumps spread?
- Airborne droplets, salivary secretions, urin
- What is the classic sign of mumps?
- Swollen, painful parotid gland
- What vaccine is used against mumps?
- MMR, live attenuated vaccine
- What is a common name for Rubella?
- German measles
- How is Rubella spread?
- droplet infection
- Why is infection with Rubella during pregnancy a concern?
- Congenital rubella --> cataracts, MR, deafness
High mortality rate in utero
- Is there a vaccine for Rubella
- Yes. Live attenuated vaccine
- What is the largest human herpes virus?
- What is another name for CMV?
- salivary gland virus
- How is CMV spread?
- urine, semen, cervical secretions, STD, blood transfusions, organ transplant
- Where does a CMV infection localize?
- epithelial cells of the salivary glands, kidney tubule, cervix, epididymis, testes
- What are the symptoms of CMV?
- usually asymptomatic, though young adults may have fever
- what is the most common viral cause of congenital defects in the US?
- CMV, cytomegalovirus infection
- What defects does CMV cause?
- fetal malformations, small size, microcephaly, MR, hearing loss, jaundice
- What disease does CMV cause in an immunodeficient patients?
- interstitial pneumonia
- What kind of virus is Epstein Barr (EBV)?
- It is a herpes virus
- How is EBV transmitted?
- saliva exchange, kissing
- What causes the symptoms of EBV?
- action of released cytokines; immunologic response; T lymphocytes respond to infected B cells.
- How does the EBV virus replicate?
- In B lymphocytes binding to C3d receptor on the cells.
- What is the EBV triad?
- 1. Sore throat
- What disease develops in older children and young adults with EBV?
- infectious mononucleosis
- Which two diseases result in Burkitt's lymphoma?
- EBV and malaria;
malaria weakens the T cell control of EBV
- What virus plays a role in 30-50% of Hodgkins disease?
- What 2 ways is smallpox spread?
- 1. Contact with skin lesions
2. Respiratory tract
- What was the 1st disease controlled by immunization?
- What makes disease eradication possible (4 factors)?
- 1. no subclinical infections
2. no carrier
3. no animal reservoir
4. effective vacine
- What causes smallpox (variola)?
- poxvirus (variola major or minor)
- What are the 3 characteristics of vector-borne infections?
- 1. able to transmit to sparse pop
2. virus survives in vector and host
3. sufficient # of vectors to infect large enough pop
- What are arboviruses?
- arthropod-borne: ticks, mosquitoes, sandflies
can cause fever, rash
- What mosquito carries yellow fever person-person?
. . . monkey-person?
- p-p Aedes aegypti ("urban" yellow fever)
m-p Haemagogus ("jungle" yellow fever)
- What are symptoms of yellow fever, and what is mortality rate?
- -Sudden onset of fever, headache, muscular aches
-Severe --> shock, liver damage, death
- What is the prevention of yellow fever?
- - Live attenuated vaccine
- Control of mosquitoes
- What is the principal vector for dengue fever?
- Aedes aegypti mosquito
- What is a common name for dengue fever?
- "break-bone" fever
- What is the severe form of dengue called?
- Dengue hemorrhagic fever syndrome.
Occurs in children in endemic areas. Mortality up to 10%
- What are the symptoms of dengue fever?
- Malaise, fever, nausea, vomiting, maculopapular rash.
- What are the symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever syndrome?
- Vascular damage, shock, hemorrhage in GI tract and skin due to cytokines
- What is the treatment for dengue fever?
- What are rickettsia?
- - Small bacteria
- Obligate parasite
- List 4 rickettsial infections
- 1. Rocky mountain spotted fever
2. Mediterranean spotted fever
3. Epidemic typhus
4. Endemic typhus
- What bacteria causes rocky mtn spotted fever?
- R. rickettsii
- What bacteria causes Mediterranean spotted fever?
- R. conorri
- What bacteria causes epidemic typhus?
- R. prowazeckii
- What bacteria causes endemic typhus?
- R. typhi
- Which is worse, epidemic or endemic typhus?
- Epidemic. Fever, headache, flu-like, maculopapular rash, maybe sever meningoencephalitis w/delirium and coma.
Endemic is similar by less severe.
- What are the special symptoms of Rocky Mtn spotted fever?
- Splenomegaly, neurologic involvement, disseminated intravascular coagulation, shock, and death if not treated immediately.
- What is the treatment for Rocky mtn spotted fever?
- Immediate tetracycline IV
- Where does rash develop in Mediterranean spotted fever?
- On palms and soles of feet
- What is the mortality rate of Mediterranean spotted fever?
- What creature transmits epidemic typhus?
- A louse -- Pediculus corporis
- Why is epidemic typhus associated with poverty and war?
- Clothes and bodies are washed less often.
- What causes Lyme disease?
- Borrelia spirochete
- What transmits Lyme disease?
- Ticks of genus Ixodes
- What is the classic sign of bite from Lyme disease infected tick?
- Bull's eye lesion.
erythema chronicum migrans
- What are the effects of untreated Lyme disease?
- - neurologic: meningitis, encephalitis, peripheral neuropathy
- cardiologic: congestive heart failure, myopericarditis
- What is the leading vector-borne disease in US?
- Lyme disease
- What protozoa cause malaria?
- P. falciparum = most virulent
- P. vivax = most common
- What vector carries malaria?
- female anopheles mosquito
- What is the life cycle of the malaria parasite?
- - sporozoites in saliva
- liver - mature into merozoites --> bloodstream
- mer's enter red blood cells, multiply, burst (when fever shivering occur)
- What is the sexual cycle of Plasmodium (malaria)?
- - form male/female gametocytes in RBC
- mosquito feeds on RBC
- gametocytes form zygote
- sporozoites migrate to salivary glands of mosquito
* zygote forms in mosquito, NOT human host
- What are symptoms of malaria?
- Fever to fatal cerebral or renal disease.
Also headache, vomiting, muscle spasms.
- Describe the synchronous cycle times of malaria.
- 48 or 72 hour periodicity of fever
1. cold & shivering
2. hot, dry stage
3. profuse sweating
- Why is P. falciparum malaria fatal during 1st 2 or 3 weeks?
- cerebral malaria - headache, neck stiffness, convulsions, coma
- severe anemia due to bursting RBC's
- clots from destroyed RBC's
- hypoglycemia & lactic acidosis - parasites consume glucose
- What is the treatment for malaria?
Drugs are strain specific.
- What is the common name for African trypanosomiasis?
- Sleeping sickness
- What protozoa cause trypanosomiasis?
- - Trypanosoma brucel gambiense
- Trypanosoma rhodesiense
- What is the trypanosomiasis vector?
- Tse-tse fly
- What are the symptoms of trypanosomiasis?
- - chancre
- lymph node enlargement
- CNS involvement
- voracious appetite
- weight loss
- How does T. brucei (trypsanosomiasis) survive so well in the blood?
- Antigenic variation
- How do you treat sleeping sickness?
- arsenical and non-arsenical drugs
- What protozoa causes Chaga's disease
- T. cruzi
- What is another name for South American trypanosomiasis?
- Chaga's disease
- How is Chaga's disease transmitted?
- reduviid bug -- kissing bug
- What systems does Chaga's disease affect?
- Heart and GI
Major cause of death = myocarditis
- What is the treatment for Chaga's disease?
* one of the hardest protozoal infections to cure
- What are leishmania?
- - Intracellular parasites that inhabit macrophages
- Cause leishmaniasis
- Which are the leishmania that cause leishmaniasis?
- - L. donovani --> visceral
- L. tropica --> cutaneous
- Name two types of leishmaniasis.
- 1. visceral, aka kal-azar -- liver and spleen
2. cutaneous -- skin
- What are the symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis (kal-azar)?
- Fever, weight loss, then years of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly.
Death from liver failure if untreated
- What are the symptoms of cutaneous leishmaniasis?
- Ulcers, scarring
- How do you treat leishmaniasis?
- antimonial compounds
- What type of infections are schistosomiasis and filariasis?
- helminth infections
- What is the basis for the pathology of schistosomiasis?
- Schistosome eggs: body becomes hypersensitive to antigens as they pass thru tissue or get trapped in organs
- What is urinary schistosomiasis?
- Schistosome eggs move thru bladder --> hemorrhage, polyps, possible cancer
- What is another common name for filiariasis?
- What causes filiariasis?
- filarial nematodes
- Describe lymphatic filiariasis.
- - Larvae enter skin
- Develop into long worms in lymph nodes & lymphatics of limbs and groin
- Fever, rash, chronic lymphatic obstruction
- What is an arenavirus infection?
- - parasite of rodents
- harmless to rodents; severe, lethal in humans
- What virus is most common in Sierra Leone hospitals?
- - Lassa fever virus
- Contracted from infected rats or their urine.
- If tranferred from patient to caretaker via blood, body fluids, more severe
- What virus causes Korean Hemorrhagic fever?
- Hantaan virus
- Where have there been recent outbreaks of Korean hemorrhagic fever?
- SW US. Severe pulmonary disease.
- What causes Marburg and Ebola viruses?
- filoviruses -- long filamentous single strand RNA
- What are the symptoms of Marburg and Ebola viruses?
- fever, hemorrhage, rash, disseminated intravascular coagulation
- How are Marburg and Ebola viruses treated?
- No known treatment
- Are there carriers of Marburg and Ebola viruses?
- Yes, there appears to be subclinical infection. Found AB's in 18% of one pop
- What causes Q (query fever)?
- a rickettsia bacteria, Coxiella burnetii
- How is the rickettsia Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) different from other rickettsia?
- 1. not transmitted by arthropods
2. transmission by inhalation
3. main action in lungs; not vascular endothelium
- If Q fever becomes chronic, what is the result?
- Endocarditis. Can be fatal
- What bacteria causes anthrax?
- Bacillus anthracis, a spore forming bacteria
- What are the 2 types of anthrax?
- 1. cutaneous
- What is an eschar? How does it develop?
- An eschar is an ulcerated papule caused by anthrax toxin that has an edema factor. Center is black and necrotic
- What is the mortality rate of pulmonary anthrax?
- 100% if not treated
- How does pulmonary anthrax begin?
- Inhalation of anthrax spores, which enter macropohages.
--> pul edema, hemorrhage, and spread of lethal toxin
- How do you treat pulmonary anthrax?
How do you prevent it?
- treat - Penicillin -- early and lots
prevent - Vaccine of purified protective antigens
- What is the real name for wool sorters disease?
- Pulmonary anthrax
- What is the cause of plague?
- Yersinia pestis
- What is the vector for bubonic plague?
- Rat flea
- What is the difference between bubonic and pneumonic plague?
- Bubonic trfr rat-to-human.
Pneumonic trfr human-to-human by droplets if lots of bacteria in lungs
- What is clinical path/signs of bubonic plague?
- 1. bacteria enter skin
2. spread to lymph nodes of armpit, groin
3. form buboes w/ hemorrhagic inflammation
4. spread to blood, septicimia, hemorrhagic
5. multisystem - spleen, liver, lungs, CNS
- What causes tularemia, a multisystem zoonosis?
- Franchisella tularensis
- How are humans infected with tularemia?
- Contact w/infected animals or by arthropod vector.
*There is no person-to-person spread
- How does tularemia develop in the body?
- Febrile illness, lymphatic spread;
Lungs, GI tract, and liver via blood
- What is the cause of leptospirosis?
- leptospira, spirochetes
- How are humans infected with leptospira?
- ingestion of contaminated food/water (rat urine), swimming
- What are the complications of leptospirosis?
- Hepatitis, bacteriuria, meningitis, hemorrhage, kidney and liver failure.
But 90% resolve okay
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