Glossary of Mel's OB Nursing Definitions from Unit 1
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- Loss of pregnancy before the fetus is viable outside the uterus; miscarriage
- Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP)
- A fetal protein produced in the yok sac for the first 6 weeks of gestation and then by the fetal liver
- Suppression or absence of menstruation
- Removal of amniotic fluid by insertion of a needle into the amniotic sac; amniotic fluid is used to assess fetal health or maturity
- The inner of the two membranes that form the sac containing the fetus and the amniotic fluid
- Pigmented ring surrounding the nipple of the breast
- A technique of palpation to detect or examine a floating object in the body; in obstetrics, the fetus, when pushed, floats away and then returns to touch the examiner's fingers
- Braxton Hicks Contractions
- Intermittent painless contractions of the uterus that may occur every 10 - 20 minutes. They occur more frequently toward the end of the pregnancy and are sometimes mistaken for true labor signs
- The "neck" between the external os and the body of the uterus. The lower end of the cervix extends into the vagina.
- Chadwicks Sign
- Violet bluish color of the vaginal mucous memberane caused by increased vascularity; visible from about the fourth week of pregnancy.
- Brownish pigmentation over the bridge of the nose and the cheeks during pregnancy and in some women who are taking oral contraceptives. Also called the mask of pregnancy.
- The fetal membrane closest to the intrauterine wall that gives rise to the placenta and continues as the outer membrane surrounding the amnion.
- Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
- Procedure in which a specimen of the chorionic villi is obtained from the edge of the developing placenta at about 8 weeks gestation. The sample can be used for chromosomal enzyme, and DNA tests.
- Threadlike structures within the nucleus of a cell that carry the genes.
- Secretion from the breast before the onset of true lactation; contains many serum and white blood corpuscles. It has a high protein content, provides some immune properties and cleanses the newborn's intestinal tract of mucus and meconium.
- Union of male sperm and female ovum; fertilization
- Contraction Stress Test (CST or OST)
- A method of assessing the reaction of the fetus to the stress of uterine contractions. This test may be utilized when contractions are occurring spontaneously or when contractions are artificially induced by oxytocin challenge test (OCT) or breast self stimulation test (BSST).
- Diameters of the inlet of pelvis: True Conjugate or Conjugate Vera
- Important diameter of the pelvis, measured from the center of the promontory of the sacrum to the back of the pubic symphysis (middle of the pubic crest)--estimated measurement
- Diameters of the inlet of the pelvis: Transverse Diameter
- Largest diameter of the inlet; determines shape of the pelvis
- Diameters of the outlet of the pelvis: Transverse Diameter
- Distance between the inner surface of one ischial tuberosity to the other
- Diameters of the outlet of the pelvis: Anterior-Posterior Diameter
- Distance from front to back including the mobility of the coccyx
- Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)also known as consumption coagulopathy
- Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), also called consumptive coagulopathy, is a pathological process in the body where the blood starts to coagulate throughout the whole body. This depletes the body of its platelets and coagulation factors, and there is a paradoxically increased risk of hemorrhage.
Prolonged retention of a dead fetus may lead to DIC
- Doppler Ultrasound
- Handheld ultrasound device
- A major complication of pregnancy (cause unknown); it occurs more often in primigravida and is accompanied by elevated blood pressure, albuminuria, oliguria, tonic and clonic convulsions and coma. It may occur during pregnancy (usually after 20th week of gestation) or within 48 hours after childbirth.
- Ectopic Pregnancy (aka oocyesis)
- Implantation of the fertilized ovum outside the uterine cavity; common sites are the abdomen, fallopian tubes and ovaries.
- The early stage of development of the young of any organism; In humans, the embryonic period is from about 2 - 8 weeks' gestation and is characterized by cellular differentiation and predominantly hyperplastic growth.
- Estimated Date of Birth (EDB)
- During a pregancy, the approximate date when the childbirth will occur; the "due date"
- Fetal Heart Rate (FHR)
- The number of times the fetal heart beats per minute; normal range is 120- 160
- Fundal Height (McDonald's Method)
- Tape measure is used to measure the distance from the top of the symphysis pubis over the curve to the top of the uterine fundus; generally correlates well with the weeks of gestation between 24 - 34 weeks
- The upper portion of the uterus between the fallopian tubes
- Period of intratuterine development from conception through birth
- Goodell's Sign
- Softening of the cervix that occurs during the second month of pregnancy
- Gravida (Multigravida, nulligravida, primigravida)
- A pregnant woman; 2nd or greater pregnancy, never been pregnant, first pregnancy
- Hegar's Sign
- A softening of the lower uterine segment found upon palpation in the second or third month of pregnancy
- HELLP Syndrome
- A cluster of changes including: HEMOLYSIS, ELEVATED LIVER ENZYMES, and LOW PLATELET COUNT; sometimes associated with preeclampsia
- Hemorrhagic Shock
- Inadequate tissue perfusion to major organs due to blood loss; s/s: hypotension, tachycardia, altered mental staus, etc.
- Excess hair growth (can be caused by ovarian tumors)
- Hydramnios (aka polyhydramnios)
- Excess of amniotic fluid leading to the overdistention of the uterus. Frequently seen in diabetic women, even if there is no coexisting fetal anomaly.
- Hydatiform Mole
- Degenerative process in chorionic villi, giving rise to multiple cysts and rapid growth of the uterus, with hemorrhage
- Hyperemesis Gravidarum
- Excessive vomiting during pregnancy, leading to dehydration and starvation
- Incompetent Cervix
- The premature dilation of the cervix, usually in the second trimester of pregnancy
- Intrauterine Growth Retardation/Restriction (IUGR)
- Fetal undergrowth due to any etiology, such as intrauterine infection, deficient nutrient supply or congenital malformation. A term used to describe fetuses falling below the 10th percentile in ultrasonic estimation of weight at a given gestational age.
- Kegel's exercises
- Perineal muscle tightening that strengthens the pubococcygeus muscle and increases its tone
- Last Menstrual Period (LMP)
- The last normal menstrual period experienced by the woman prior to pregnancy; sometimes used to calculate the infant's gestational age
- Lamaze Method
- A method of childbirth preparation
- Mucous discharge from the vagina or cervical canal that may be normal or pathologic, as in the presence of infection.
- Moving of teh fetus and uterus downward into the pelvic cavity
- Lithotomy Position
- The Lithotomy position is the position of lying on the back with knees bent and elevated above the hips with the thighs apart.
- Linea Nigra
- The line of darker pigmentation extending from the umbilicus to the pubis noted in some women during the later months of pregnancy.
- McDonald's Sign
- A probable sign of pregnancy characterized by an ease in flexing the body of the uterus against the uterus.
- Montgomer's tubercles
- The glands of Montgomery, or Montgomery's tubercles, are the tiny "bumps" that are scattered around the areola (the darker area which rings the nipple). During pregnancy these glands enlarge and they remain enlarged while breastfeeding. They can vary greatly in number, averaging between 4 and 28 per areola. Montgomery originally described these glands as "a constellation of miniature nipples scattered over a milky way."
It is believed that these sebaceous, or oil-producing glands, secrete a lubricating and protective substance, altering the skin's pH and discouraging bacterial growth (Williams 1992). These glands also secrete a small amount of milk (Lawrence 1995). This lubrications helps to keep the skin healthy and the areola elastic.
- Nagele's rule
- Method of determining the estimated date of birth= first day of LMP - 3 months + 7 days
- Non-stress test (NST)
- An assessment method by which the reaction or response of the fetal heart rate to fetal movement is evaluated.
- Internal os
- An inside mount or opening; the opening between the uterus and the cervix
- External os
- The opening between the cervix and the vagina
- Parity/Para; Multipara, Nullpara, primipara
- Woman who as borne offspring of viable age
- The period around birth (5 months prior and 1 month after)
- The tissue between the anus and vagina
- Placenta previa
- Abnormal implantation of the placenta in the lower uterine segment: classification based on proximity to the cervical os (total, partial, marginal)
- Preeclampsia or Toxemia;
Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH)
- A condition in pregnancy, also known as pre-eclampsia (or preeclampsia) characterized by abrupt hypertension (a sharp rise in blood pressure), albuminuria (leakage of large amounts of the protein albumin into the urine) and edema (swelling) of the hands, feet, and face. Pre-eclampsia is the most common complication of pregnancy. It affects about 5% of pregnancies. It occurs in the third trimester (the last third) of pregnancy.
Pre-eclampsia occurs most frequently in first pregnancies. It is more common in women who have diabetes or who are carrying twins.
- Any infant born before 38 weeks
- Excessive salivation
- The first fetal movements felt by the pregnant woman, usually between 16 - 18 weeks gestation
- Striae Gravidarum
- Stretch marks; shiny reddish marks that appear on the abdomen, breasts, thighs and buttocks of pregnant women as a result of stretching the skin
- Supine hypotension
- Enlarging uterus puts pressure on the vena cava when woman is supine. This pressure interferes with blood flow and produces a marked decrease in blood pressure with accompanying dizziness, pallor and clamminess (can be corrected by having woman lie on left side).
- STDs Sexually transmitted diseases
- Infections oridarily transmitted by direct sexual contact with an infected individual.
- Normal duration of a pregnancy 38-41 weeks
- High-frequency sound waves that may be directed, through the use of a transducer, into the maternal abdomen. Ultrasonic sound waves allow identification of maternal and fetal tissues, bones and fluids.
- Uterine Souffle
- Swooshing sound of maternal heart rate over the uterus
- Turning the fetus inutero
- The top or crown of the head
- Ability to survive outside the mother
- Fertilized egg
- 3 Positive (Diagnostic) Signs of pregnancy
- 1) Fetal heartbeat
2) Fetal movement
3) Visualization by ultrasound
- 10 Objective (Probable) Signs of Pregnancy
- 1) Softening of cervix GOODELL'S SIGN
2) Chadwick's sign: bluish coloration
3) Hegar's sign: softening of the isthmus of uterus
4) McDonald's sign: ease of flexing the body of the uterus against the cervix
5) Enlargement of the abdomen
6) Braxton Hicks ctx
7) Uterine/Funic souffle
8) Changes of pigmentation/stretch marks
9) Palpation of fetus
10) PG test + for HCG
- 6 Subjective (Presumptive) Signs of Pregnancy
- 1) Amenorrhea
2) Nausea Vomiting
3) Excessive fatigue
4) Urinary frequency
5) Changes in breasts
- Periodic increase in the baseline fetal heartrate
- Amniotomy (AROM)
- The artificial rupturing of the amniotic membrane
- In perinatal care, the relationship of the fetal parts to each other
- Augmentation of Labor
- The stimulation of uterine contractions after the spontaneous onset of labor, with or without ruptured fetal membranes, for the purpose of accomplishing birth
- Bloody show
- Pink tinged mucous secretions resulting from ruture of small capillaries as the cervix effaces and dilates
- Breech presentation
- A birth in which the buttocks and/or feet are presented instead of the head
- 6 Cardinal movements of labor
- The positional changes of the fetus as it moves through the birth canal during labor and birth. The positional changes are: 1. descent, 2. flexion, 3. internal rotation, 4. extension, 5. restitution, and 6. external rotation
- Caput succedaneum
- Swelling or dedma occurring in or under the fetal scalp during labor
- Tightening and shortening of the uterine muscles during labor, causing effacement and dilation odf the cervix; contributes to the downward and outward descent of the fetus
- Cephalic presentation
- Birth in which the fetal head is presenting against the cervix
- Cephalopelvic disproportion
- A condition in which the fetal head is of such a shape or size, or in such a position, that it cannot pass through the maternal pelvis
- Appearance of the presenting fetal part at the vaginal orifice during labor
- Periodic decrease in the baseline fetal heartrate
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