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Glossary of Medical Terminology Final

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adenoids
collections of lymph tissue in the nasopharynx (also called pharyngeal tonsils)
alveolus
air sac in the lung
plural-alveoli
apex of the lung
uppermost portion of the lung
apical
apical means pertaining to the apex
base of the lung
lower portion of the lung
bronchioles
smallest branches of the bronchi
bronchus
branch of the trachea (windpipe) that is a passageway into the air spaces of the lung; bronchial tube
cilia
thin hairs attached to the mucous membrane epithelium lining the respiratory tract; they clear bacteria & foreign subs. from the lung; smoking cigarettes impairs the func. of cilia
diaphragm
muscle separating the chest & abdomen; it's the most impt. muscle for breathing
epiglottis
lid-like pc. of cartilage that covers the larynx, preventing food from entering the larynx & trachea during swallowing
expiration
breathing out (exhalation)
hilum
midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, & nerves enter and exit the lungs
hilar
pertaining to the hilum
inspiration
breathing in (inhalation)
larynx
voice box
lobe
division of a lung
mediastinum
region b/n the lungs in the chest cavity; it contains the trachea, heart, aorta, esophagus, and bronchial tubes
palatine tonsil
one of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphoid tissue in the oropharynx
paranasal sinus
one of the air cavities in the bones near the nose
parietal pleura
the outer fold of pleura lying closest to the ribs & wall of the thoraic cavity
pharynx
throat; composed of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
pleura
double-folded membrane surrounding ea. lung
pleural cavity
space b/n the folds of the pleura
trachea
windpipe
visceral pleura
the inner fold of pleura lying closest to the lung tissue
adenoid/o
adenoids
alveol/o
alveolus; air sac
bronch/o, bronchi/o
bronchial tube, bronchus
bronchiol/o
bronchiole, small bronchus
capn/o
carbon dioxide
coni/o
dust
cyan/o
blue
epiglott/o
epiglottis
laryng/o
larynx, voice box
lob/o
lobe of the lung
mediastin/o
mediastinum
nas/o
nose
orth/o
straight
ox/o
oxygen
pector/o
chest
pharyng/o
pharynx, throat
phon/o
voice
phren/o
diaphragm
pleur/o
pleura
pneum/o, pneumon/o
air, lung
pulmon/o
lung
rhin/o
nose
sinus/o
sinus, cavity
spir/o
breathing
tel/o
complete
thorac/o
chest
tonsill/o
tonsils
trache/o
trachea, windpipe
-ema
condition
-osmia
smell
-pnea
breathing
-ptysis
spitting
-sphyxia
pulse
-thorax
pleural cavity, chest
auscultation
listening to sounds w/n the body
percussion
tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of the underlying structure
rales (crackles)
abnormal crackling sounds heard during inspiration when there is fluid, blood, or pus in the aveoli
sputum
material expelled from the chest by coughing or clearing the throat
stridor
strained, high-pitched, noisy sound made on inspiration; assoc. w/ obstruction of the larynx or trachea
wheezes
continuous high-pitched whistling sounds heard when air is forced through a narrow space during inspiration & expiration
croup
acute viral infection in infants & children; char. by obstruction of the larynx, barking cough, and stridor
diphtheria
acute infection of the throat & upper respiratory tract caused by the diphtheria bacterium
epistaxis
nose bleed
pertussis (whooping cough)
bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, & trachea caused by Bordetella pertussis, a highly contagious bacterium
paroxysmal
pertaining to a sudden occurence, such as a spasm or seizure; oxysm/o- sudden
asthma
chronic inflammatory disorder char. by airway obstruction caused by edema, bronchoconstriction, & increased mucus production
bronchiectasis
chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection in the lower lobes of the lung
purulent
pus-containing
palliative
relieving symptoms, but not curing the disease
bronchogenic carcinoma
(lung cancer)
cancerous tumors arising from a bronchus
chronic bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi persisting over a long time
cystic fibrosis
inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick, mucous secretions that don't drain normally
atelectasis
incomplete expansion of alveoli; collapsed, functionless, airless lung or portion of a lung; caused by tumor or other obstruction of the bronchus, or poor respiratory effort
emphysema
hyperinflation of air sacs w/ destruction of alveolar walls
pneumoconiosis
abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, w/ chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis
pneumonia
acute inflammation & infection of alveoli, which fill w/ pus or products of the inflammatory rct.
pulmonary abscess
a lg. collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs
pulmonary edema
swelling & fluid in the air sacs & bronchioles
pulmonary embolism (PE)
clot (thrombus) or other material lodges in vessels of the lung
pulmonary fibrosis
formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs
tuberculosis (TB)
infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; lungs are usually involved, but any organ in the body may be affected
pleural effusion
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (cavity)
pleurisy (pleuritis)
inflammation of the pleura
pneumothorax
collection of air in the pleural space
exudate
fluid, cells, or other substances (pus) that slowly leave cells or capillaries through pores or small breaks in cell membranes
hydrothorax
collection of fluid in the pleural cavity
pulmonary infarction
an area of dead (necrotic) tissue in the lung
pulmonary angiography
x-ray images taken after injecting radiopaque contrast into the pulmonary artery or right side of the heart
bronchoscopy
fiber-optic or rigid endoscope inserted into the bronchial tubes for diagnosis, biopsy, or collection of specimens
endotracheal intubation
placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx, & trachea to establish an airway
laryngoscopy
visual examination of the voice box
lung biopsy
removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination
mediastinoscopy
endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum
thoracentesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space
thoracotomy
major surgical incision of the chest
thorascopy
visual examination of the chest via small incisions & use of an endoscope
tracheostomy
creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck
tube thoracostomy
chest tube is passed through an opening in the skin of the chest to continuously drain a pleural effusion
ARDS
adult (or acute) respiratory distress syndrome
(group of sym, tachypnea, dyspnea, tachycardia, hypoxemia, cyanosis-resulting in acute respiratory failure)
Bronch
bronchoscopy
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (airway obstruction associated w/ emphysema & chronic bronchitis0
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CXR
chest x-ray
DOE
dyspnea on exertion
DPT
diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (injection in an infant to provide immunity to these diseases)
ICU
intensive care unit
LLL
left lower lobe (of lung)
LUL
left upper lobe (of lung)
A&P
auscultation & percussion
PE
pulmonary embolism
RDS
respiratory distress syndrome
RLL
right lower lobe (of lung)
RSV
respiratory syncytial virus; in tissue culture forms syncytia or giant cells (cytoplasm flows together); it's a common cause of bronchiolitis, bronchopneumonia, & the common cold
RUL
right upper lobe (of lung)
SOB
shortness of breath
TB
tuberculosis
URI
upper respiratory infection
respiration
mechanical process of breathing
external respiration
the exchange of air b/n the lungs and external environment
internal respiration
involves an exchange of gases at the cells w/n all organs of the body
erythrocytes
in the blood carry oxygen to all parts of the body & carbon dioxide to the lungs for exhalation
Upper Resp. Disorders
croup
diphtheria
epistaxis
pertussis
Bronchial Tube Disorders
asthma
bronchiectasis
bronchogenic carcinoma
chronic bronchitis
cystic fibrosis
Lung Disorders
atelectasis,emphysema, pneumoconiosis, pneumonia, pulmonary abscess, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism (PE), pulmonary fibrosis, tuberculosis (TB)
Pleural Disorders
pleural effusion
pleurisy (pleuritis)
pneumothorax
nosocomial
hospital acquired
bones
provide the framework for our bodies
joints
the places at which bones come together
orthopedists
physician that treats bones and bone and joint diseases
rheumatologists
physicians who primarily treat joint diseases
osteopathic physicians (DO)
practice osteopathy, which is a seperate school of medicine using diagnostic & therapeutic measures based on belief that the body is capable of healing itself when bones are in proper position & adequate nutrition is provided
chiropractors
neither physicians nor osteopaths; they manipulate the spinal column, believing that disease is caused by pressure on nerves
bone processes
enlarged areas that extend out from bones to serve as attachments for muscles
bone head
rounded end of a bone separated from the body of the bone by a neck; usu. covered by articular cartilage
trochanter
lg. process on the femur for attachment of tendons and muscle
tubercle
rounded process on many bones for attachment of tendons and muscles
tuberosity
small rounded elevation on a bone; attachment site for bone and muscle
condyle
rounded knuckle-like process at the joint; usu. covered by articular cartilage
Bone Depressions
fossa
fissure
foramen
sinus
frontal bone
forms the forehead and the roof of the bony sockets that contain the eyes
parietal bone
two of these bones (one on each side of the skull) that form the roof and upper part of the sides of the cranium
temporal bone
two of these bones form the lower sides and base of the cranium; ea. bone encloses an ear & contains a fossa for joining w/ the mandible (lower jaw bone)
temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
the area of connection b/n the temporal & mandibular bones
occipital bone
forms the back and base of the skull & joins the parietal & temporal bones, forming a suture
sphenoid bone
bat-shaped bone that extends behind the eyes & forms part of the base of the skull
ethmoid bone
thin delicate bone that is composed primarily of spongy, cancellous bone (supports nasal cavity & forms part of the orbits of the eye)
Facial Bones
nasal bones
lacrimal bones
maxillary bones
mandibular bone
zygomatic bones
vomer
nasal bones
2 slender nasal bones support the bridge of the nose; they join w/ the frontal bone superiorly & form part of the nasal septum
lacrimal bones
2 paired bones are located at the corner of ea. eye
maxillary bones
2 lg. bones compose the massive upper jawbones
mandibular bone
the lower jawbone
zygomatic bones
2 bones, 1 on ea. side of the face, form the high portion of the cheek
vomer
thin, single, flat bone forms the lower portion of the nasal septum
Cranial bones
frontal bones, parietal bone, temporal bone, occipital bone, sphenoid bone, ethmoid bone
vertebral, spinal column
composed of 26 bone segments, called vertebrae, arranged in 5 divisions from the base of the skull to the tailbone
intervertebral disks (discs)
bones (vertebrae) separated by pads of cartilage
cervical vertebrae
the first 7 bones of the vertebral column
thoraic vertebrae
the second set of 12 vertebrae
lumbar vertebrae
the third set of 5 vertebrae
sacrum
slightly curved, triangularly shaped bone
coccyx
tailbone
Bones of the Thorax
clavicle
scapula
sternum
ribs
clavicle
collar bone
scapula
shoulder bladee
sternum
breastbone
ribs
there are 12 pairs of ribs
true ribs
ribs 1-7
false ribs
ribs 8-10
floating ribs
ribs 11 & 12
Bones of the Arm & Hand
humerus
ulna
radius
carpals
metacarpals
phalanges
humerus
upper arm bone
ulna
medial lower arm bone
olecranon (elbow bone)
the bony pt. of the elbow when the elbow is bent
radius
lateral lower arm bone
carpals
wrist bones
metacarpals
5 radiating bones in the fingers; these are the bones of the palm of hand
phalanges
finger bones singular- phalanx
ea. finger (except thumb has 3 phalanges: a proximal, middle, & distal phalanx; the thumb: a proximal & distal)
Bones of the Pelvis
pelvic girdle
pelvic girdle
pelvis
The adult pelvis is composed of 3 pairs of fused bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis
ilium- the uppermost & largest portion
ischium- posterior part of pelvis
pubis- anterior part & 2 pubic bones join by way of a cartilaginous disk
Bone of the Leg & Foot
femur
patella
tibia
fibula
tarsals
metatarsals
phalanges of the toes
femur
thigh bone
acetabulum
rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis, which joins the femur, forming the hip joint
patella
kneecap
tibia
largest of 2 bones of the lower leg
fibula
smaller of 2 lower leg bones
acromion
outward extension of the shoulder bone forming the pt. of the shoulder; it overlies the shoulder joint & articulates w/ the clavicle
diaphysis
shaft, or midportion, of a long bone
disk (disc)
flat, round, plate-like structure
epiphysis
ea. end of a long bone; the area beyond the epiphyseal plate
fissure
narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones
foramen
opening or passage in bones where blood vessels, nerves, or both enter and leave
fossa
shallow cavity in a bone
foramen magnum
opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes
malleolus
round process on both sides of the ankle joint (lateral malleolus-fibula, medial malleolus-tibia)
manubrium
upper portion of the sternum; articulates w/ the medial aspect of the clavicle
olecranon
lg process on the proximal end of the ulna; the pt. of the flexed elbow
sinus
hollow cavity w/n a bone
xiphoid process
lower, narrow portion of the sternum
calc/o, calci/o
calcium
kyph/o
humpback (posterior curvature in the thoraic region)
lamin/o
lamina (part of the vertebral arch)
lord/o
curve, swayback (anterior curvature in the lumbar region)
lumb/o
loins, lower back
myel/o
bone marrow
oste/o
bone
scoli/o
crooked, bent (lateral curvature)
spondyl/o
vertebrae (used to make words about the conditions of the structure)
vertebr/o
vertebrae (used to describe the structure)
-blast
embryonic or immature cell
-clast
to break
-listhesis
slipping
kyphosis
hump on the back
lordosis
the normal anterior curvature of the spinal column in the lumbar region (sway back)
scoliosis
the spinal column is bent abnormally to the side
-malacia
softening
-physis
to grow
-porosis
pore, passage
-tome
instrument to cut
acetabul/o
acetabulum (hip socket)
calcane/o
calcaneus (heel bone)
carp/o
carpals (wrist bones)
clavicul/o
clavicle (collar bone)
cost/o
ribs
crani/o
cranium (skull bones)

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