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Glossary of Medical Terminology Digestive System CH 5

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Passage of materials through the walls of the intestine into the blood stream
Absorption
Building blocks of proteins and produced when proteins are digested
amino acids
Enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch
amylase
Opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
anus
Blind pouch hanging form the cecum (in the RLQ)
appendix
Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up large fat globules.
bile
Pigment released by the liver in bile.
Bilirubin
Intestine
bowel
Pointed, dog-like teeth, next to the incisors. (distal to) Also called cuspids or eyeteeth
canine teeth
First part of the large intestine
cecum
Large intestine
colon
Carries bile form the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum.
common bile duct
Expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus.
defecation
process of swallowing
deglutition
Major tissue composing of teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.
dentin
Process of breaking down of complex foods to simpler foods.
digestion
First part of the small intestine.
duodenum
Removal of waste material from the body.
elimination
Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules.
emulsification
Hard, outermost layer of a tooth.
enamel
A chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances, helping in the breakdown of complex foods to simpler foods.
Enzyme
Tube connecting the throat to the stomach.
esophagus
Substances produced when fats are digested.
fatty acids
Solid waste; Stools
feces
Small sac under the liver; stores bile
gallbladder
A simple sugar
glucose
Starch;
glycogen
Substance produced by the stomach;
hydrochloric acid
Third part of the small intestine
ileum
One of four front teeth in the dental arch.
incisor
Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas.
insulin
Second part of the small intestine.
jejunum
Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.
lipase
A large organ located in the RUG of the abdomen.
liver
Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach.
lower esophageal sphincter LES
Process of chewing
mastication
Sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch
molar teeth
Roof of the mouth.
palate
Organ under the stomach; produces insulin, and enzymes
pancreas
Small elevations on the tongue.
papillae (singular- papilla)
salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear.
parotid gland
Rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal tract and other tubular structures.
peristalsis
The common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose.
pharynx
Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.
portal vein
Enzyes that digest protein.
protease
Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels.
pulp
Ring of muscle fibers at the distal region of the stomach, where it joins the duodenum.
pyloric sphincter
Last section of the colon
rectum
Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach.
rugae
Digestive juice produced by salivary glands
saliva
Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands.
salivary glands
Lower part of the colon
sigmoid colon
Ring of muscle fibers that constrict a passage or closes a natural opening.
sphincter
Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus.
stomach
Large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acid and one part glycerol.
triglycerides
Soft tissue hanging from the soft palate into the mouth.
uvula
Microscopic projections in the walls of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.
Villi (singular: villus)
process of forming new sugar from proteins and fats
gluconeogenesis
high levels of a bile pigment in the bloodstream
hyperbilirubinemia
pertaining to administration other than through the intestinal tract
parenteral
a mucous membrane
mucosa
breakdown (conversion) of animal starch to sugar.
glycongenolysis
new surgical connection between two previously unconnected organs.
anastomosis
one who diagnoses and treats disorders of the anus and rectum.
proctologist
one who operates on the urinary tract
urologist
one who straightens the teeth.
orthodontist
one who performs root canal therapy.
endodentist
one who operates on the mouth and teeth.
oral surgeon
one who diagnoses and treats gastrointestinal tract disorders.
gastroenterologist
one who diagnoses and uses drugs to treat kidney disorders.
nephrologist
one who treats gum diseases.
peridontist
one who operates on the intestinal tract.
colorectal srugeon

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