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Glossary of Medical Terminology Chapter 4 Pg 139-141

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appendicular skeleton
bones of shoulder, pelvis, and upper and lower extermeties
axial skeleton
bones of skull, vertebral column, chest, and hydoid bone (U shaped bone at the base of the tounge)
bone
specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes (bone cells) froming the skeleton
compact bone
tightly solid, strong bone tissue resistant to bending
spongy (cancellous) bone
mesh-like bone tissue containing marrow and fine branching canals through which blood vessels run
long bones
bones of arms and legs
short bones
bones of wrist and ankles
flat bones
bones of ribs, shoulder blades, plevis, and skull
irregular bones
bones of vertebrae and face
sesamoid bones
round bones found near joints (e.g. patella)
epiphysis
wide ends of a long bone
diaphysis
shaft of a long bone
metaphysis
growth zone between epiphysis and diaphysis during development of a long bone
endosteum
membrane lining the medullary
medullary cavity
cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow
bone marrow
soft connective tissue within the medullary cavity of bones
red bone marrow
functions to form red blood cells, some white blood cells, and platelets; found in cavities of most bones in infants and in the flat bones in adults
yellow bone marrow
gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones; functions as storage for fat tissue and is inactive in formation of blood cells
periosteum
a fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the bone
articular cartilage
a gristlelike substance on bones where they articulate

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