Glossary of Medical Terminology - Chpt. 7

Start Studying! Add Cards ↓

fatty (lipid) paste
circle or crown
swollen, twisted vein
ventricle (belly or pouch)
blood vessel
upper right and left chambers of the heart
membrane lining the cavities of the heart
membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
interatrial septum
partition between right and left atrium
interventricular septum
partition between right and left ventricle
heart muscle
protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid between
parietal pericardium
outer layer (parietal = pertaining to wall)
pericardial cavity
fluid-filled cavity between the pericardial layers
visceral pericardium
layer closest to the heart (visceral=pertaining to organ)
lower right and left chambers of the heart
heart valves
structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the one-way flow of blood
aortic valve
heart valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
mitral or bicuspid valve
heart valve between the left atrium and left ventricle (cuspis=point)
pulmonary semilunar valve
heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery (luna=moon)
tricuspid valve
valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
valves of the veins
valves located at intervals within the lining of veins, especially in the legs, which constrict with muscle action to move the blood returning to the heart
vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles
large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle
small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
systemic circulation
circulation of bood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
coronary circulation
circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
pulmonary circulation
circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
to expand, period in the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria
to contract, period in the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and pulmonary artery
normotension, normotensive
normal blood pressure
hypotension, hypotensive
low blood pressure
hypertension, hypertensive
high blood pressure
sinoatrial (SA node)
the pacemaker, highly specialized neurologcal tissue, embedded in the wall of the right atrium, responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV node
thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification (hardening) of the arterial walls
buildup of fatty substances within the walls of arteries
atheromatous plaque
a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fat (lipids)
a stationary blood clot
the condition of developing stationary clots
a clot (ie. air, fat, foreign object) carried in the bloodstream that obstructs when it lodges (embolus=a stopper)
the condition in which traveling blood clots or other materials come to rest in blood vessel (resulting in blockage of vessel)
condition of narrowing of a part
compression of a part
plugging, obstruction or a closing off
decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
a localized area of necrosis (condition of tissue death) caused by ischemia as a result of occlusion of a blood vessel
angina pectoris
chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle often caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries (angina=to choke)
a widening, bulging of the wall of the heart, the aorta, or an artery caused by congenital defect or acquired weakness
to limp, pain in a limb (especially the calf) while walking that subsides after rest, it is caused by inadequate blood supply
heart murmur
an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
subjective experience of pounding, skipping, or racing heartbeats
any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
slow heart rate (<60 beats/minute)
chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation
premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
a ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node (pacemaker)
fast heart rate (>100 beats/minute)
arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD)
a degenerative condition of the arteries characterized by thickening of the inner lining, loss of elasticity, and susceptibility to rupture-seen most ofen in the aged and smokers
bacterial endocarditis
a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or the heart valves
cardiac tamponade
compression of the heart produced by accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac as results from pericarditis or trauma, causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart (tampon=a plug)
a general term for disease of the heart muscle (ie. alcoholic cardiomyopathy (damage to the heart muscle caused by excessive consumption of alcohol)
congenital anomaly of the heart
malformations of the heart present at birth (anamoly=irregularity)
atrial septal defect (ASD)
an opening in the septum separating the atria
coarctation of the aorta
narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused the by the failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth (patent=open)
ventricular septal defect (VSD)
an opening in the septum separating the ventricles
congestive heart failure (CHF)/left ventricular failure
failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body, resulting in a "bottleneck" of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, causing edema in lower portions of the body
cor pulmonale/right ventricular failure
a condition of enlargement of the right ventricle as a result of chronic disease within the lungs that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance to blood flow to the lungs (cor=heart)
coronary artery disease (CAD)
a condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium-most often caused by atherosclerosis
hypertension (HTN)
persistently high blood pressure
essential (primary) hypertension
high blood pressure attributed to no single cause, but risks include smoking, obesity, increased salt intake, hypercholesterolemia, and hereditary factors
secondary hypertension
high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease (ie. kidney disease)
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
myocardial infarction (MI)/heart attack
death of myocardial tissue (infarction) owing to loss of blood flow (ischemia) as a result of an occlusion (plugging) of a coronary artery, usually caused by atherosclerosis, symptoms include pain in the chest or upper body (shoulders, neck, and jaw), shortness of breath, diaphoresis, and nausea
inflammation of the myocardium most often caused by viral or bacterial infection
inflammation of the pericardium
inflammation of a vein
rheumatic heart disease
damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever (a streptococcal infection)
inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
varicose veins
abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves, most often seen in the legs
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body, occurring most often in the femoral and iliac veins
cardiac arrest
sudden stopping of heart muscle contraction, not the same as a heart attack, may result from electrocution, drowning, drug reaction, etc.
a physical examination method of listening to sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope
noise, an abnormal heart sound caused by turbulence within
an abnormal heart sound that mimics the gait of a horse, related to abnormal ventricular contraction
an electrical picture of the heart represented by positive and negative deflections on a graph labeled with letters P, Q, R, S and T, corresponding to events of the cardiac cycle
intracardiac catheter ablation
use of radiofrequency waves sent through a catheter within the heart to treat arrhythmias by selectively destroying myocardial tissue at sites generating abnormal electrical pathways
positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the heart
use of nuclear isotopes and computed tomography techniques to produce perfusion (blood flow) images and study the cellular metabolism of the heart, can be taken at rest or with stress
x-ray imaging
an x-ray of a blood vessel after injection of a contrast medium
a record obtained by angiography
coronary angiogram
an x-ray of the blood vessels of the heart
an x-ray of a particular artery (ie. coronary, renal)
an x-ray of the aorta
an x-ray of a vein
cardiac catheterization
introduction of a flexible, narrow tube or catheter through a vein or artery into the heart to withdraw samples of blood, measure pressures within heart chambers or vessels, and inject contrast media for various exams
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
grafting of a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body to bypass an occluded coronary artery, restoring circulation to myocardial tissue
opening, joining of two blood vessels to allow flow from one to the other
incision and coring of the lining of an artery to clear a blockage caused by a clot or atherosclerotic plaque buildup
valve replacement
surgery to replace a diseased heart valve with an artificial one (types=tissue, mechanical)
repair of a heart valve
endovascular sugery
interventional procedures performed endoscopically at the time of cardiac catheterization
angioscopy (vascular endoscopy)
use of a flexible fiberoptic angioscope accompanied by an irrigation system, a camera, a video recorder and a monitor that is guided through a specific blood vessel to visually assess a lesion and select the mode of therapy
excision of atheramatous plaque from within an artery utilizing a device housed in a flexible catheter that selectively cuts away or pulverizes tissue buildup
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)/balloon angioplasty
a method of treating the narrowing of a coronary artery by inserting a specialized catheter with a balloon attachment, then inflating it to dilate and open the narrowed portion of the vessel and restore blood flow to the myocardium, most often includes placement of a stent
intravascular stent
implantation of a device used to reinforce the wall of a vessel and ensure its patency (openness), most often used to treat a stenosis or a dissection (a split or tear in the wall of a vessel) or to reinforce patency of a vessel after angioplasty
termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivery of an electrical stimulus to the heart, most commonly by applying electrodes externally to the chest wall but can be performed internally at the time of open heart surgery
a device that delivers the electrical stimulus in defibrillation
implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)
an implanted, battery-operated device with rate-sensing leads that monitors cardiac impulses and initiates an electrical stimulus as needed to stop ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia
a device used to treat slow heart rates (bradycardia) by electrically stimulating the heart to contract, most often implanted with lead wires and battery circuitry under the skin but can be temporarily placed externally with lead wires inserted into the heart via a vein
thrombolytic therapy
dissolution of thrombi using drugs
a drug that counteracts cardiac arrhythmia
a drug that prevents clotting of the blood commonly used in treating thrombophlebitis and myocardial infarction
a drug that lowers blood pressure
beta blockers
agents that inhibit responses to sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity causing a slowing of electrical conduction and heart rate and lowering of pressure within the walls of the vessels, used to treat angina pectoris and hypertension
thrombolytic agents
drugs used to dissolve thrombi (blood clots)
a drug that causes narrowing of the blood vessels, decreasing blood flow
a drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels, increasing blood flow

Add Cards

You must Login or Register to add cards