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Glossary of Med Term-Neurologic disorders and anestiesia-related

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axon
axis
gangli, ganglio
knot, ganglion
neur, neuro-
nerve(s)
Nucleus
little kernel
plexus
braid, network
radicle
root, small branches
synapse
point of contact between neurons
nerve: cranial # of
12 pairs
nerve: spinal # of
31 pairs
nerve cell, neuron: axon
single process leading away from cell body
nerve cell, neuron: cell body
central part of neuron
nerve cell, neuron: dendrite, dendron
lead into cell body, receive message from previous dendrite
nerve cell, neuron: effector
responder, end of signal
nerve cell, neuron: myelin sheath
made of fat and protein, surrounds neuron
nerve cell, neuron: neurilemma, neurolemma, sheath of Schwann
holds myelin onto axon
nerve cell, neuron: receptor
responds to stimuli, starts message
neuron type: afferent/sensory neurons
messages toward brain
neuron type: efferent/motor neurons
messages away from brain
roots of spinal nerves: doral (posterior) root
contains afferent neurons
roots of spinal nerves: ventral (anterior) root
contains efferent neurons
Bell's palsy
disorder of 7th cranial nerve (facial nerve), paralysis of 1/2 of face
causalgia
post traumatic pain, sudden reoccurring pain
Guillain-Barre syndrome
ascending flaccid paralysis
herniated nucleus pulposus, h
protrusion of disk
neuroma
tumor starting on nerve
polyneuritis, polyneuropathy
vitamin D deficiency, many nerves inflamed causes pain or numbness
sciatic neuritis, sciatica
herniated disk of lumbar region
neurectomy
cutting of nerve
neuroanastomosis
surgical communication between nerve fibers
vagotomy
cutting of vagus nerve, stop production of hydrochloric acid of stomach
aural verigo
disorder of inner ear causing dizziness
paroxysmal pain
sudden recurring pain
trigeminal neuralgia, tic douloureux
pain in frontal part of brain, brain freeze

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