Glossary of Med-Surg Nursing - 28

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a serum protein produced by the liver and normally found in the lungs that inhibits proteolytic enzymes of white cells from lysing lung tissue; genetic deficiency of this protein can cause emphysema
absorption atelectasis
alveolar collapse that occurs when high concentrations of oxygen are given and oxygen replaces nitrogen in the alveoli; if airway obstruction occurs, the oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream and the alveoli collapse
a chronic inflammatory lung disease that results in airflow obstruction
centrilobular emphysema
type of emphysema often associated with chronic bronchitis in which respiratory bronchioles enlarge, the walls are destroyed, and the bronchioles become confluent
chest percussion
rhythmic percussion of a patient's chest with cupped hands to loosen retained respiratory secretions
chest physiotherapy
a series of maneuvers including percussion, vibration, and postural drainage designed to promote clearance of excessive respiratory secretions
chronic bronchitis
obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by excessive production of mucus and chronic inflammatory changes in the bronchi
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
pulmonary disease state characterized by the presence of airflow obstruction caused by chronic bronchitis or emphysema; clinical use of the term indicates the presence of chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema
cor pulmonale
hypertrophy of the right side of the heart, with or without heart failure, resulting from pulmonary hypertension
cystic fibrosis
an autosomal recessive, multisystem disease characterized by altered function of the exocrine glands involving primarily the lungs, pancreas, and sweat glands
diaphragmatic breathing
breathing with the use of the diaphragm to achieve maximum inhalation and slow respiratory rate
dry powder inhaler
dry powdered drug delivered by inhalation
an abnormal permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, accompanied by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis
high arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 <45 mm Hg); also called hypercarbia
excessive or exaggerated response to a stimulus; in asthma, leads to bronchoconstriction in response to physical, chemical, or pharmacologic stimuli
low arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 <35 mm Hg); also called hypocarbia
metered-dose inhaler
aerosolized drug delivered in a specific amount by activating the inhaler or by inhaling
normal arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 35-45 mm Hg)
O2 toxicity
a condition of oxygen overdosage caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of oxygen; may inactivate pulmonary surfactant and lead to development of acute respiratory distress syndrome
pancreatic insufficiency
a condition characterized by inadequate production and secretion of pancreatic hormones or enzymes
panlobular emphysema
type of emphysema involving distention and destruction of the entire primary respiratory lobule; usually associated with a 1-antitrypsin deficiency
postural drainage
the use of various positions to promote gravity drainage of bronchial secretions
pursed-lip breathing
a technique of exhaling against pursed lips to prolong exhalation, preventing bronchiolar collapse and air trapping
status asthmaticus
a severe, life-threatening asthma attack that is refractory to usual treatment and places the patient at risk for developing respiratory failure
in asthma, any stimuli that initiates the IgE-mast cell mediated response resulting in the pathophysiologic responses of asthma
pressing on the chest with the flat of the hands while repeatedly tensing the hand and arm muscles to facilitate movement of secretions to larger airways

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