Glossary of Measles, Mumps, Rubella
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- What family does measles virus belong to? How many serotypes of measles are there?
- *the paramyxoviruses
*there is only one serotype of measles
- How is measles acquired?
- Through inspiration of aerosolized droplets.
- How long is the incubation period for measles? What symptoms are seen in a typical infection? What clinical sign is diagnostic?
- *incubation period is 10-14 days
*symptoms include fever, cough & runny nose, rash that first appears on head and neck
*Koplik's spots - red lesions with white centers that appear on buccal mucosa
- Name some complications of measles.
*giant cell or primary measles pneumonia
*secondary bacterial pneumonia
*subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
- What persons are at risk for atypical measles? How does this condition present clinically?
- *persons who received the killed vaccine between 1963-1967
*there is an atypical rash (w/o Koplik's spots) and often a serious pneumonitis
- What is the structure of the measles virion and its genome?
- *helical nucleocapsid with an envelope
*genome is one molecule of (-) ssRNA
- Describe the proteins found on the envelope of the measles virus.
- *H glycoprotein that has hemagluttinating activity
*F glycoprotein that has cell fusing activity...this protein must be cleaved by a host protease to become active
- What causes the rash seen in measles? When might the rash not be seen?
- It is due to cell-mediated immunity. Persons with compromised immunity may not display the rash.
- What is the target of the neutralizing antibody in measles? Are maternal antibodies protective?
- *antibody is directed towards the H glycoprotein
*maternal antibodies provide protection for 6 months, although they might interfere with vaccine
- Why might a patient with measles have a concomittant infection with a second agent?
- Measles is characterized by depression of CMI.
Acquisition of measles depends on close contact with infected persons.
- False: the virus is able to survive for four hours outside the body so close contact isn't neccessary.
- What is the biggest problem comcerning MMR vaccination in the US?
- It is a live virus vaccine thus requires storage under refrigeration.
- What family does mumps belong to? How many serotypes exist?
*there is only one serotype
- How long is the incubation period of the mumps virus? What is the common clinical presentation?
- *18 days
*swollen salivary glands (parotitis); 30% of all cases are subclinical
- What complications can arise from mumps?
*involvement of epithelia in ovaries or kidneys
- What glycoproteins are present on the envelope of the mumps virus?
- *one with both with hemagglutinating (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) activity
*one with fusion (F) activity
- How is mumps spread? When are infections more common?
- *spread by aerosolized droplets
*peak in winter and spring months
- What family does rubella belong to? What makes it unique among members of this family? Describe the structure of its virion and genome.
*most other togaviruses have an arthropod vector
*icosahedral nucleocapsid with envelope
*genome is one molecule of (+) ssRNA
- Where in the host cell does the rubella virus replicate?
- *in the cytoplasm
- What is the incubation period of rubella? What is the clinical presentation?
- *14-21 days
*rash, arthralgia...most cases are subclinical
- What is the danger of rubella in a pregnant woman?
- If the woman is non-immune, the fetus is at risk for congenital rubella syndrome which may cause spontaneous aboortion, hearing loss, cataracts, or persistent infection.
- How is rubella transmitted? What time of year is it most common?
- *aerosolized droplets
*springtime epidemics every few years
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