Glossary of Malaria, T Gondii, Cryptospor, Cyclospor.

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Definitive Host
Host in which the parasite completes SEXUAL phase of its life cycle.
Intermediate Host
Host in which the parasite lives, completing life cycle or reproducing asexually.
Organism which TRANSMITS a parasite to a host.
Host in which MAINTAINS the population over time.
In Malaria, the vector is the definitive host.
Asexual stages in Malaria?
*Merozoite = ring
Sexual stages of Malaria?
Describe the PREPATENT clinical course of Malaria.
Patient is asymptomatic while the parasite multiplies in the liver.
Describe the PAROXYSM in the clinical course of Malaria.
*Shaking chills
*High Fever
*Very sudden and periodic
*RBCs are bursting and releasing new merzoites.
2 important factors of diagnosing Malaria.
*Giemsa staining (thick and thin)
What is the only infectious stage of the Malaria parasite?
Three types of Malaria parasite.
*Plasmodium Falciparum
*P. Vivax and Ovale
*p. Malariae
What type of RBCs do P. Vivax and P. Ovale invade?
Schuffner's Dots are indictative of which plasmodium?
P Vivax and Ovale
P Vivax and Ovale produce a latent form of the disease called? Where do they reside?
Hypnozoites reside in the liver, and can re-initiate disease years later.
What is the periodicity of P Vivax and Ovale?
48 Hrs
Describe Plasmodium Malariae.
*Invade old RBCs and Hg
*No hypnozoites
*72 Hr periodicity
What type of RBCs does Plasmodium Falciparum invade?
All RBCs
What shape are the P. Falciparum gametocyte and what is the periodicity?
*Sickle/banana shaped gametocyte
*48 hr periodicity
What is teh most common type of malaria?
What are some characteristics?
Falciparum Malaria.
*Most dangerous and drug resistant.
*Can form Cerebral Malaria.
Why is Falciparum malaria the most dangerous and why aren't intermediate stages seen in the periphery?
Form knobs which "stick" to capillaries and get sequestered, thus they do not circulate. This can block cerebral circulation and lead to cerebral malaria.
High and Low transmission rates of malaria?
High transmission = immune adults and infected kids and elderly.

Low Transmission = disease in all ages.
Which areas of the world have the highest drug resistance?
Latin America and SE Asia.
Drugs used for prohaylaxis of malaria?
3 personal protection techniques against malaria.
*Bed nets
*Long sleeves and pants
Treatment of Malaria.
Genetic Predispo to Malaria.
*Sickle cell and Thalassemia
*Gluc-6-phos dehydrog
*Duffy blood group negative
What is the vector and reservoir in Babesiosis?
Vector = Tick
Reservoir = White-footed mouse
What illness does Babeiosides mimic? In what patient cohort can this disease manifest?
Disease mimics Malaria and can be severe in splenectomized and elderly patients.
What is the definitive host in Toxoplasma gondii?
What are the two routes of infection in T. Gondii?
*Oocyst from cat feces.
*Cyst from undercooked meat.
T. Gondii manifests into a mononecleosis like disease in 40-50% of the cases.
False...10-20% of the cases.
Can toxoplasmosis be harmful to pregnant women? Why?
T. Gondii can be harmful to non-immune females if they are infected during their pregnancy.
*1st Tri = malformations
2/3rd Tri = Abortions
What two ways do AIDS patients generally present with T Gondii?
*Encephalitis ( usually fatal)
*Retinal lesions
What two methods are used to diagnose T Gondii?
*Culture/Innoc of mice
Cryptosporidiosis has been known as a cattle pathogen, what has allowed it to become a pathogen in humans?
Opprotunistic infx in AIDS patients.
Symptoms and treatment of Cryptosporidosis?
*Mild diarrhea in immunocompetent.
*Severs diarrhea in immunocompromised.

*No effective treatment.
How is Cryptosporidosis transmitted?
*Drinking water - source of most outbrks
*Swimming pools

*Cysts resistant to Chlorine.
What are the two genotypes found in cryptospor., and who do they infect?
*C. Hominis = Infx humans ONLY.
*C. Parvum = Infx Cattle and humans.
Outbreaks of cryptospor. in the US/UK are usually due to which genotype?
Outbreaks are generally C. Hominis, while sporadic cases are confined to C. Parvum.
Outbreaks in developing countries are generally due to which cryptospor genotype?
C Parvum
What are some differences b/t cryptospor and cyclospor?
*Cyclo is larger
*Cyclo has NO animal reservior.

*same life cycle and illness, and outbreaks are due to imported foods.

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