Glossary of Malaria, T Gondii, Cryptospor, Cyclospor.
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- Definitive Host
- Host in which the parasite completes SEXUAL phase of its life cycle.
- Intermediate Host
- Host in which the parasite lives, completing life cycle or reproducing asexually.
- Organism which TRANSMITS a parasite to a host.
- Host in which MAINTAINS the population over time.
In Malaria, the vector is the definitive host.
- Asexual stages in Malaria?
- *Merozoite = ring
- Sexual stages of Malaria?
- Describe the PREPATENT clinical course of Malaria.
- Patient is asymptomatic while the parasite multiplies in the liver.
- Describe the PAROXYSM in the clinical course of Malaria.
- *Shaking chills
*Very sudden and periodic
*RBCs are bursting and releasing new merzoites.
- 2 important factors of diagnosing Malaria.
- *Giemsa staining (thick and thin)
- What is the only infectious stage of the Malaria parasite?
- Three types of Malaria parasite.
- *Plasmodium Falciparum
*P. Vivax and Ovale
- What type of RBCs do P. Vivax and P. Ovale invade?
- Schuffner's Dots are indictative of which plasmodium?
- P Vivax and Ovale
- P Vivax and Ovale produce a latent form of the disease called? Where do they reside?
- Hypnozoites reside in the liver, and can re-initiate disease years later.
- What is the periodicity of P Vivax and Ovale?
- 48 Hrs
- Describe Plasmodium Malariae.
- *Invade old RBCs and Hg
*72 Hr periodicity
- What type of RBCs does Plasmodium Falciparum invade?
- All RBCs
- What shape are the P. Falciparum gametocyte and what is the periodicity?
- *Sickle/banana shaped gametocyte
*48 hr periodicity
- What is teh most common type of malaria?
What are some characteristics?
- Falciparum Malaria.
*Most dangerous and drug resistant.
*Can form Cerebral Malaria.
- Why is Falciparum malaria the most dangerous and why aren't intermediate stages seen in the periphery?
- Form knobs which "stick" to capillaries and get sequestered, thus they do not circulate. This can block cerebral circulation and lead to cerebral malaria.
- High and Low transmission rates of malaria?
- High transmission = immune adults and infected kids and elderly.
Low Transmission = disease in all ages.
- Which areas of the world have the highest drug resistance?
- Latin America and SE Asia.
- Drugs used for prohaylaxis of malaria?
- 3 personal protection techniques against malaria.
- *Bed nets
*Long sleeves and pants
- Treatment of Malaria.
- Genetic Predispo to Malaria.
- *Sickle cell and Thalassemia
*Duffy blood group negative
- What is the vector and reservoir in Babesiosis?
- Vector = Tick
Reservoir = White-footed mouse
- What illness does Babeiosides mimic? In what patient cohort can this disease manifest?
- Disease mimics Malaria and can be severe in splenectomized and elderly patients.
- What is the definitive host in Toxoplasma gondii?
- What are the two routes of infection in T. Gondii?
- *Oocyst from cat feces.
*Cyst from undercooked meat.
T. Gondii manifests into a mononecleosis like disease in 40-50% of the cases.
- False...10-20% of the cases.
- Can toxoplasmosis be harmful to pregnant women? Why?
- T. Gondii can be harmful to non-immune females if they are infected during their pregnancy.
*1st Tri = malformations
2/3rd Tri = Abortions
- What two ways do AIDS patients generally present with T Gondii?
- *Encephalitis ( usually fatal)
- What two methods are used to diagnose T Gondii?
*Culture/Innoc of mice
- Cryptosporidiosis has been known as a cattle pathogen, what has allowed it to become a pathogen in humans?
- Opprotunistic infx in AIDS patients.
- Symptoms and treatment of Cryptosporidosis?
- *Mild diarrhea in immunocompetent.
*Severs diarrhea in immunocompromised.
*No effective treatment.
- How is Cryptosporidosis transmitted?
- *Drinking water - source of most outbrks
*Cysts resistant to Chlorine.
- What are the two genotypes found in cryptospor., and who do they infect?
- *C. Hominis = Infx humans ONLY.
*C. Parvum = Infx Cattle and humans.
- Outbreaks of cryptospor. in the US/UK are usually due to which genotype?
- Outbreaks are generally C. Hominis, while sporadic cases are confined to C. Parvum.
- Outbreaks in developing countries are generally due to which cryptospor genotype?
- C Parvum
- What are some differences b/t cryptospor and cyclospor?
- *Cyclo is larger
*Cyclo has NO animal reservior.
*same life cycle and illness, and outbreaks are due to imported foods.
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