Glossary of MVHS AP Biology Ch. 8

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has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region
Amphipathic molecule
the membrane is a fluid structure with various proteins embedded in or attached to a double layer of phospholipids
Fluid Mosaid Model
penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer
Integral Proteins
appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane
Peripheral proteins
the hydrophilic substances avoid contact with the lipid bilayer by passing through...
Transport Proteins
The tendency for molecules of any substance to spread out into the available space
any substance will diffuse down its...
Concentration Gradient
The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane
Passive Transport
The solution with a higher concentration of solute
the solution with a lower concentration of solute
Solutions of equal solute concentration
the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
the control of water balance
a very firm cell
a limp cell
the cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall
When diffusion is helped by a protein
Facilitated Diffusion
water channel proteins
a stimulus causes them to open or close
Gated Channels
transport requiring energy
Active Transport
exchanges sodium for potassium across the plasma membrane of animal cells
Sodium-Potassium Pump
the combination of forces acting on an ion
Electrochemical Gradient
a transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane
Electrogenic Pump
the main electrogenic pump of plants, bacteria, and fungi
Proton Pump
the cell secretes macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles witht he plasma membrane
the cell takes in macromolecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles
a cell engulfs a particle by wrapping pseudopodia around it and packaging it within a membrane-enclosed sac
the cell "gulps" droplets of extracellular fluid into tiny vesicles
very specific about the solutes dissolved in the droplet
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
extracellular substances that bind to the receptors

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