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Glossary of MUS 115

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Instrument where strings are struck with metal levers
Clavichord
Instrument where strings are struck with felt-covered hammers
Piano
Instrument where strings are plucked with quills
Harpsichord
Characteristics of Gregorian Chant
Non-metrical
Modes
Wide range of styles
Plainsong
Recting tone
Unaccompained
Monophonic
Latin text
Free prose rhythm
Plainsong official music of church
Period
Middle Ages
Antiphon?
Period
Genre of plianchant
Middle Ages
Originated in the Middle ages?
Tune and polyphony
North France
South France
Period
Trouveres
Troubadours
Middle Ages
Center of development of early polyphony
Perio
Paris
Middle Ages
The ability to write down meter and rhythm first developed in:
ars antiqua or ars nova
period
ars antiqua
Middle Ages
Wrote Orfeo?
Period
Monteverdi
Baroque
Golden age of opera
Romantic opera
Music celebrated as most profound of all arts
Romantic
Bel canto
period
Beautiful singing
Romantic
Greatest Italian opera composer
Committed to what instrument
What special about recitative
Example of opera
Special about arias
Period
Verdi
Human voice
Always accompanied by full orchestra
Aida
Arias can be sung as concert number
Romantic
Second most influential of all 19th century composers
Period
Richard Wagner
Romantic
Wagner condemned what?
Period
Arias
Romantic
Three important facts about Wagner
Period
Leitmotiv - guiding motiv
Gesamtkunstwer - Total work of art; music matched closely to the words; unrelievedly emotional and intense
Romantic
Music Dramas
What is a leitmotiv?
Who invented it?
When?
Guiding motive, such as a sword motive or something to represent emotion
Wagner
Romantic
Two Wagner operas
Tristan und Isolde
The Ring of the Nibelung
Late Romantics turns away from what and towards what?
Post 1850's literature and art turns away from Romanticism and toward realism
Realism in opera contradicts Wagner's works
Symphonic poem during what period?
What was it?
Main composers?
Late Romantic
One-movement orchestral composition with a program, in a free musical form
Franz Liszt and Pyotr Ilyich Chaikovsky
Who wrote Romeo and Juliet?
What Period?
Chaikovsky during the Romantic period
Original Nationalism in what period?
Characterized by what?
Romantic
Incorporation of national folk music into songs?
Nationalism shows Romanatic music's passion for what?
What countrys are excluded from nationalism?
Freedom
France, Germany, italy
Exoticism
Period
Adoption of elements associated with nationalism, but not derived from the culture of the composer; such as Dvorak's New World Symphony
Who are the Russian Kuchka?
Piece?
Five Russian Nationalist composers
Modes Musorgsky
Mighty Five
Pictures at an Exhibition
Response to Romanticism by Brahms?
Go back to classical style and influence of Beehoven
Response to Romanticism by Mahler?
Describe his works
Embrace
Large scale works
Large scale orchestra
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
City
Period
Pieces
Style
Classical
Vienna
Don Giovanni
Opera
Franz Haydn
City
Period
Pieces
Style
Vienna
Classical
The Seasons
Symphonies
Ludwig von Beethoven
City
Period
Pieces
Style
Vienna
Classical-Romantic
Symphony No. 5
Symphnies
Franz Schubert
City
Period
Pieces
Style
Romantic
Vienna
Lieder, songcycles, character pieces
Erlking
Robert Schumann
City
Period
Pieces
Style
Romantic
Character Pieces and minatures
Caraval
Clara Schumann
City
Period
Pieces
Style
Romantic
Pianist
Minatures
Frederick Chopin
City
Period
Pieces
Style
Paris
Romantic
Nocturnes, character Pieces
Nocturne in F-sharp
Hector Berlioz
City
Period
Pieces
Style
Romantic
Program Symphonies
idee fixe
Fantastic symphony
Giuseppe Verdi
City
Period
Pieces
Style
Italy
Romantic
Operas
bel Canto
Aida
Richard Wagner
City
Period
Pieces
Style
Germany
Romantic
Opera
Leitmotiv, music drama, gesamtkunstwerk
Tristan und isolde
The Ring of the Nieblung
exiled
Pyotr Illyich Chaikovsky
City
Period
Pieces
Style
St. Petersburg
Symphonic poem
Romeo and Juliet
Nationalist
Ballet Scores
leitmotiv
Modest Musorgsky
City
Period
Pieces
Style
Mighty Five
Nationalist
Pictures at an Exhibition
Johannes Brahms
City
Period
Pieces
Style
Back to classical Style and Beethoven
Romantic period
Violin concerto
Gustav Mahler
City
Period
Pieces
Style
Huge orchestras
Renew Romanticism
Romantic era
Symphonies
Dawn song - period
Alba
Middle Ages
Secular music in middle ages
Troubadours
Trouveres
Minnesingers
Jongleurs
Secular melody in middle ages
Metrical
Wider range than chant
More regular phrases
Sung to simple accompaniament
Vernacular language
Estampie
Dance during middle ages
Metric (triple)
Same or similar musical phrases throughout
Renaissance began where
Revival in interest in what
Italy
Interest in Greco-Roman cultures to bring back glorious past
Humanism in what period
Renaissance
Church and Court sponserd music in ...
Renaissance
When does composed homophony begin
Renaissance
Ideals of Renaissance sound
4 or more equal parts
A cappela
Polyphonic
Rhythm is fluid
Tempos and dynamics change little
Metric, but meter is frequently obscured by fluidity of rhythm
Restrained vocal ranges
Early polyphony is ...
Time period
Emellishment of what
Organum
embellish Gregorian Chant
Plainchant melody w/ another melody in counterpoint
Middle Ages
Organum developed where by whom and when
In Notre Dame in Paris
By Leonin and Perotin
Middle Ages
Motet in Middle Ages
Develop after organum
Polyphony w/ upper lines given words
Ars Antiqua
Period
Sacred age
Development of organum
Paris center of culture
Melodic independence of parts
Introduce meter and fixed rhythm into organuma and motet
Motet Created
Middle Ages
Ars Nova
Period
Secular
Literary and artistic growth
Breatkup of traditions
Black Death
Rhythmic freedom and complexity
Secular motet
middle Ages
Guillaume de Machaut
Period
Ars Nova motet
Middle Ages
Sacred music in renaissance
Motet
Mass (comparable to how ppl felt about symphony)
Distort plainchant
Emphasis on sonorous and sensuous
Paraphrase
Ordinary/Proper
Period
Kyrie
Gloria
Credo
Sanctus
Agnus dei
Ite, missa est
Renaissance
Motet in Renaissance
Short composition to Lat in words made up of short sections in homophony and imitative polyphony
Hallmarks of High renaissance
Blend homophony and imitative counterpoint
Development of homophony
How did polyphony change from 15th to 16th century
non-imitative to imitative
Declamation
Period
Words sung to rhythms and melodies that approximate normal speech
Renaisance
Word Painting
Period
Match music to meaning of word
Renaissance
Madrigal
Types
Period
One-stanza poem with rapid turnover of imitative polyphony and homophony, but much more homophony
Italian and English
Renaissance
Most widespread instrumental music in what form
For Renaissance
Dance music
Stylized
When did classical and popular music split?
20th century
What is special about US popular music afer WWII
Becomes a musical language
20th century Classical music splits into...
Modernist
Continuation of traditional
When did modernism peak
Sharp reaction to...
1890-1918
Late 19th centruy culture and conventions.
Visual arts
Literature
Music
Responses to modernism
Visual arts no longer obligated to represent something form the external world
Literature freed from conventions of sentence structure, syntax, and grammar
Music, conventions of melody, harmony, and tonality no longer binding. Sprechstimme
New language for art during modernism
Serialism - replace a language based on tonality
Best known modernist movement
Impressionism; shift from literal representation to projecting the interplay of light and color
Movement following impression
Symbolism
Fascinated by Wagner
Impressionist in music
Debussy
Group of dances in a collection
Suite
Minuet and Trio of Baroque Era
Binary form
|:a:||:b:| |:c:||:d:| ab
Affects developed when
Baroque
Church ==
Opera ==
Court==
primarty type music during baroque
Church == Vocal
Opera == Vocal
Court == Instrumental
Vocal virutosity in the Baroque opera shown through...
Coloratura singing
Oratorio
Period
Composer
Opera on a religious subject, no staging, participation of choir
Baroque
Handel
Baroque sacred vocal music
Oratoria, passion, cantata, mass, and motet
purcell in what period
Baroque
When did religion cease to be the overriding force in many people's minds
Classical
Public concert invented
Classical
Pleasing variety and natural
Classical
Comic opera progress
Classical
Rhythm of romantic
Tempo and meter
Texture
flexible
Constant
Homophonic
First time you can hum a tune after concert
Classical
Functional harmony developed
Baroque
Themes are repeated immediately after first heard
Classical music
Multiple cadences
Classical music
Standard Forms
Classical music
Symphony rise due to...
Movements are...
Rise of public concert
1. Fast Sonata
2. Slow T & V, Rondo
3. Minuet w/ Trio
4. Fast - sonata or rondo
Sonata as a noun
period
Piece for a small number of instruments or single
For private performance
Classical
Who developed double exposition
Mozart
Next to symphony, what was the most important genre of the classical period
Developed by whom
String Quartet
Haydn
During the Romantic period, music developed as a belief that music should mirror...
...one's own emotional life
First time music was taken entirely serious as an art on the highest level
Romantic
How does Beethoven differ from Mozart and Haydn
Mood of excitement and urgency
Demand on instruments
Dynamics
What gives the 5th symphony its quality
Rhythmic drive
Motivic consistency
Psychological progression
When did the public become conservative about music
Romantic
Romantic Rhythm
Improv?
Melody
Tone color
Rubato
No more improv
More emotional, effusive, and demostrative
Lied
Romantic song w/ piano
Schubert master
Text is a poem
Through-composed vs.
Strophic form
T: Change throughout to fit text
S: Same music for all stanzas
Song cycle
Group of songs w/ common theme; usually poems
Romantic
Character piece
Moment musical, descriptive title, all levels of difficulty
Two main minatures
Period
Lied
Character piece
Romantic
Program music
poems, stories, nonmusical ideas in general and instrumental pieces
concert overture, symphonic poem, program symphony
Each piece had its own sound world
Serialism
What is the holy trinity of music
Melody
Harmony
Tonality
Heavy sonorites characterisitc of what period
Romantic
Stravinsky what period
Modernism
Stravinsky had a revolutionary use of what
meter and rhythm
Bela bartok intrigued by what
period
folk music
modernist

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