Glossary of MTS SECTION 300: INSTRUCTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES
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- Learning Fundamentals
State the laws of learning and describe how each can be used to enhance
- 1. Law of Readiness.
a. Students learn best when they are physically, mentally, and emotionally ready to learn. Since learning is an active process, students must have adequate rest, health, and physical ability. Students who are exhausted or in ill health obviously cannot learn much. Although these areas are beyond your control, you must know how to address them in your classroom. For students to be mentally ready to learn, they must master certain knowledge and skills at one level before they can learn those required at the next higher level. For example, students who have not learned the basic application of a law have little chance of applying that law to more complex situations.
b. Instructor must have lesson plans, training materials, and classroom or laboratory prepared before the lesson. In this way you will gain the confidence and attention of your students.
2. Law of Effect.
a. An individual learns best those things which result in satisfying consequences. Since the law of effect has a direct relationship to motivation, it has many practical applications for you in the training environment.
b. One of the most basic applications is in your relationship with adult students. Adults want immediate benefits from training, so begin your instruction by presenting the benefits of the lesson. Continue to remind students of these benefits throughout the training. Point out the value of the training in meeting the needs of your students: self-satisfaction, self-confidence, improved skills, and so forth. Begin each lesson with a statement of objectives to help students establish goals, and let them know you expect them to meet those goals. Motivate students by providing positive reinforcement as they proceed from success to success. That is the basis of the law of effect.
3. Law of Primacy. Based on the law of primacy, students retain information they learn for the first time longer that they retain information they must relearn. Unlearning incorrect procedures (or bad habits) is always more difficult than learning the correct procedures in the beginning. Therefore, the law of primacy plays an important role in Navy training. Navy training courses allow a limited amount of time for learning, They do not include time for students to relearn improperly taught information. Make sure you teach the correct information and procedures that first time; proceed from the simple to the complex, from the known to the unknown. Clarify misunderstandings and errors before moving on. Remember, your students must be ready to learn new material.
4. Law of Exercise. This law is based on the old maxim that practice makes perfect. It has been proven that students learn best and retain information longer when they have meaningful practice and repetition. The key here is that the practice must be meaningful. It is clear that practice leads to improvement only when it is followed by positive feedback. That means that as an instructor, you need to follow upon every homework assignment, every lab exercise, and any other student activities you assign. Students must have supervised practice in applying new skills to reach the required level of expertise to master course objectives. That is how the transfer method of learning takes place; from the information you teach, to the students’ use of it.
5. Law of Intensity.
a. The law of intensity states that a vivid experience is learned better and retained longer. Make your instruction powerful enough to have a strong, positive effect on your students by getting them actively involved in the lesson. Instruction that allows students to sit passively in the classroom doesn’t have much intensity. You can talk about the effects of tear gas all day. But talking will never have the same impact as putting students in a controlled environment and letting them experience tear gas without a gas mask. That is INTENSITY.
b. Use the best instructional media available, including the real thing. Use examples, analogies, and personal experiences to make learning come to life. Make learning interactive by initiating and controlling your students’ involvement in the learning process.
- Describe the elements of learning objectives and the role each element
plays in clarifying the learning goal.
- 1. The Behavior Element.
a. The behavior defines what the learner should be able to do as an outcome of training. It
may include application of knowledge, accomplishment of a skill, or demonstration of an attitude. This element of the objective always specifies student performance. You must be able to observe the behavior and to measure what the student must do to demonstrate accomplishment of the objective.
b. The significant parts of the behavior element are the (1) subject, (2) performance-oriented verb, and (3) object. The object of a behavior element is a word or phrase that denotes what is acted upon. The object should include all modifiers needed to define what the student will be acting upon.
2. The Condition Element.
a. The condition basically defines aiding and limiting factors imposed upon the student in satisfying the performance requirements of the objective. It may also define the degree of interaction with the training environment that the learner may expect. Objectives may contain several conditions or none at all. In some instances, objectives may contain no aiding or limiting factors, or the conditions of performance may be obvious. The objective should not include conditions that are not legitimate training concerns.
b. When combined with the behavior element, the condition element provides a clearer understanding of the learning outcome defined by the objective.
3. The Standard Element.
a. The standard specifies the criteria the students’ performance must meet. Standards are normally defined as time, accuracy, quantity, speed, or some other quantifiable measurement. Whether the standard element appears in the objective depends on how critical it is to determining the student’s accomplishment of the objective. If you must measure student accomplishment against some criteria, then the learning objective will include the standard element. If not included, the standard is assumed to be 100 percent.
- List and describe the three domains of learning
- 1. The Cognitive Domain contains six major categories.
a. Knowledge (Level 1) is defined as the remembering of previously learned information. Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain. Objectives at this level require students to demonstrate their knowledge of the subject, but not their understanding of it.
b. Comprehension (Level 2) is defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of material. These learning outcomes are more complex than simple recall of information and represent the lowest level of understanding.
c. Application (Level 3) is the ability to apply learning in new and concrete ways. Application differs from comprehension in that application shows that a student can use (apply) learning correctly.
d. Analysis (Level 4) is the ability to separate material into its component parts to arrive at an understanding of its organizational structure. Analysis requires a higher level of understanding than either comprehension or application. Learning outcomes that involve decision making, problem solving, or troubleshooting skills normally require this level of understanding.
e. Synthesis (Level 5) refers to the ability to reason from the general to the particular. Synthesis stresses creative behavior that combines many parts into a meaningful whole.
f. Evaluation (Level 6) involves the ability to judge the value of material based on defined criteria. Learning outcomes of this category contain elements of all the other cognitive categories in addition to value judgments. This category represents the highest level of understanding with the cognitive domain.
2. The Affective Domain defines learning outcomes associated with emotions and feelings, such as interest, attitudes, and appreciation. Measuring the accomplishment of objectives in the affective domain is generally more difficult than in the other domains. In this domain we are not only interested in a “correct response” but also in determining the student’s feeling, attitude, and interest toward the subject.
3. The Psychomotor Domain.
a. Perception (Level 1) concerns the students’ use of their sensory organs to obtain cues that guide their motor activity. It involves the students’ learning from sensory stimulation (awareness of a sight, sound, or scent) and from recognition of the stimulus (identification of the object, sound, or scent) to perform certain actions.
b. Set (Level 2) refers to the student’s being ready to perform a particular action. Perception of cues serves as an important prerequisite for this level. This category includes mental set (mental readiness to act), physical set (physical readiness to act), and emotional set (willingness to act).
c. Guided Response (Level 3) involves the early stages of learning a complex skill. It includes learning through imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of performance is normally judged by another person or by the use of defined criteria.
d. Mechanism (Level 4) concerns performance skills of which the learned responses are more practiced than in the previous level, but are less complex than the next higher level. You may expect the student to be able to perform these skills with some degree of confidence and proficiency.
e. Complex Overt Response (Level 5) the student should be able to demonstrate a high degree of proficiency. This level includes highly coordinated motor activities.
f. Adaptation (Level 6) concerns highly developed skills. Transfer learning is associated with this level in that students use previously learned skills to perform new but related tasks.
g. Origination (Level 7) refers to a student’s ability for new and creative performance after having developed skill. Learning outcomes at this level emphasize creativity in responding to a particular situation or specific problem.
- List the four learning styles and describe the characteristics of each
- Concrete Learners prefer an experience-based approach to learning. They rely heavily on their own feelings and personal judgments. Personal involvement is the key for them. They learn best by imitation after watching others take part in role-playing and simulations. They very much like to be involved with the “real thing.” For example, suppose you were trying to teach your students how to operate a fire pump. Concrete learner would prefer to watch you demonstrate the operation. They could then operate the pump by imitating your performance.
2. Active Learners prefer to learn by becoming involved with the subject and taking an active step-by-step approach. They learn best from small group discussions, structured exercises, and problem-solving approaches. Active learners are experimenters who prefer to systematically try out new skills. A trial-and-error way of learning appeals to them. To operate the fire pump, active learners would systematically try out several different ways of operation.
3. Reflective Learners like to observe and reflect (make comparisons and contrasts) before drawing conclusions. They learn best from lectures, films, and reading. Reflective learners prefer to play the role of the impartial observer while watching others. To operate the fire pump, reflective learners would watch others operate the pump and reflect (think) about the different ways of operations. They would then analyze their observations before attempting to operate the pump themselves.
4. Abstract Learners prefer a theory-based, analytical approach to learning. They learn best from lectures by experts, theoretical reading, case studies, and activities that require solitary
thinking. Abstract learners like to find the “theory” behind the subject matter and analyze the approach to discover what concepts are involved. In operating the fire pump, they would prefer to read about its principles of operation and to analyze the concepts involved in its operation before attempting to operate it.
- Describe the four essential characteristics of Instructional Media Material
- 1. Accurate. Visual aids must accurately depict the instruction intent. Use of outdated or incorrect visuals defeats the purpose of displaying IMM. You cannot adequately explain away inaccuracies-students remember what they see more than what they hear. If you IMM is not accurate, none of the other characteristics will matter.
2. Simple. The simplest version that will do the job is the best. Visual aids that contain unnecessary data confuse students and may arouse their curiosity in a direction contrary to the one intended.
3. Visible. The IMM must be visible for all students from all areas in the training environment. The “accurate” and “simple” characteristics will be of no value unless all students can see all aspects of your visual aid. The use of bold block letters best ensures readability. Readability also depends on the spacing between words and line, which should be uniform and appropriate to the size of the lettering.
4. Necessary. The IMM must support specific learning objectives. It must meet one or more of the purposes for using IMM. Do not use IMM as a time filler just because it is available.
- Describe the types and uses of oral questions in an instructional situation.
- 1. The primary purpose of oral questioning is to stimulate the students to think. It also arouses interest in the subject matter, focuses attention upon a particular area of the subject matter, and it drills students on subject matter they must recall precisely.
a. Factual Question. Factual questions ask for specific information. The primary purpose of the factual question is to help students memorize facts. It may also be used to arouse interest, to focus attention upon certain parts of the subject matter, and to assist in determining the level of instruction.
b. Thought-Provoking Question. Thought-provoking questions normally begin with such interrogatory expressions as “What is the advantage of…,” “What is the difference between…,” “Why is this method considered superior to…,” “How would you solve the problem if…,” etc. The value of this type of question is that a single question, properly used, will stimulate the students to think. Prepare good, thought-provoking questions on key lesson points in advanced.
c. Interest-Arousing Question. The main purpose in asking this type of question is to focus the students’ attention and get them thinking about the subject you are about to present. Superficially, it may sound like a factual question, however, your goal is not to get a specific answer but to grab the students’ attention.
d. Multiple-Answer Question. This question is one that has more than one correct answer. It can be used to increase student participation or cause students to think about the other students’ answers. It generates a high interest level and improves listening skills.
e. Yes/No Question. This type of question has value in arousing interest, focusing attention, encouraging student participation, and serving as a lead-in to other kinds of questions. Excessive use of yes or no questions tends to encourage students to guess.
- Describe the proper five-step questioning technique
- The five-step questioning technique consists of 1) asking the question, 2) pausing, 3) calling upon a student, 4) evaluating the student’s answer, and 5) emphasizing the correct answer.
a. Since the intent of questioning is to provoke thought, ask the question prior to calling on a student. This encourages each member of the class to formulate an answer.
b. Pause to allow students enough time to think through their answers. Vary the duration of the pause depending on the difficulty of the question and the level of the students.
c. Call on a student by name to answer a question. This satisfies a basic student need for recognition.
d. Comment on the given answer or acknowledge the response. Provide feedback to the responder and class on the quality of the answer. If student gives an incorrect answer, be critical only of the answer and not the student. Provide positive reinforcement for correct answers.
e. Emphasizing or repeating the answer is optional. Avoid the tendency to repeat each answer as that has the effect of diminishing the student’s response.
- Describe the various ways in which an instructor can enhance student
- Make the subject matter interesting. Plan motivational strategies to keep the lesson interesting. To promote interest, use a variety of materials while instructing.
2. Establish goals. The goals of instruction come directly from the learning objectives. Ensure that you present the objectives for each block of instruction so that students will understand exactly what they are expected to be able to do as a result of training.
3. Provide informative feedback. Students need feedback when they are trying to meet goals. You can give either oral or written feedback, but be sure you give recognition for proper student behavior and achievements. Also be sure to point our student errors and how to correct them. Recognizing good performance and pointing out areas that need improvement contribute to effective learning.
4. Show interest in your students. Give students detailed feedback when they respond to a question or perform some task related to instructional objectives. Feedback may make the difference between a student’s feelings of success or failure. Always comment favorably on successful performance.
5. Encourage participation. Be open to student contributions and points of view. Students bring many different experiences to the learning environment. Use these experiences to stimulate interest and add variety to learning.
- State and describe the types of instructional method.
- 1. Lecture. The lecture method is an instructional presentation of information, concepts, or principles. Its main purpose is to present a large amount of information in a short period of time. The subject may be presented to a large audience because they use no visuals and there is no interaction between the students and the instructor. Since the lecture method depends primarily on student listening and note-taking skills for the transfer of learning, you must have effective speaking skills, which can help overcome some of the major shortcomings of no active student participation. Lectures should be short, well organized, and to the point with clear-cut goals and objectives.
2. Lecture with audiovisuals. This is a frequently used instructional method for the Navy, since most learning takes place through the sense of sight. Visual aids can reduce the amount of explanation time required for students to grasp concepts, structures, and relationships. This method requires the instructor to prepare, plan the timing of audio/visual use, and practice.
3. Lesson. This is the method most often used in Navy classroom instruction. It is interactive in nature. It not only includes audio/visual aids, it also involves the use of two-way communication. The lesson method follows a lesson plan and incorporates questions to encourage student thinking and check for understanding throughout the lesson. This method involves the use of training aids to support and clarify the main teaching points and follows the same procedures used in the lecture with audiovisuals method. Use the same procedures used in the lecture with audio/visual method.
4. Demonstration. This is the basic, and most often used, method of instruction for teaching skill-type subjects. It covers all the steps your students need to learn a skill in an effective learning sequence. It always includes a demonstration step and a performance step and allows for other steps needed.
a. Demonstration Step. Uses the law of primacy. Always proceed from simple to complex in logical sequence; show the correct way to perform the steps the first time you demonstrate them. Use the following techniques when giving an actual demonstration:
(1) Position the students and training aids properly.
(2) Show and explain the operations. Perform the operations in step-by-step order. If possible, present the telling and doing simultaneously. Ensure every student understands the first step before you proceed to the second, and so on. Repeat difficult steps.
(3) Observe safety precautions.
(4) Give proper attention to terminology. Call each part of a training aid by its proper name each time you call attention to it.
(5) Check student comprehension carefully. Ask questions and watch for reactions indicating lack of attention, confusion, or doubt.
b. Repetition Steps. Generally, you will include one or more repetition steps between the demonstration step and the performance step. How many repetition steps you should include should be based on the complexity of the skill. Also consider the nature of the skill.
c. Performance Step. The students practice under supervision until they have attained the required proficiency. During this step, the students apply what they have previously learned as a result of the preceding demonstrations. The term ‘application’ or ‘supervised application’ may be used to identify this activity.
5. Role Playing. This method requires students to assume active roles in a simulated situation followed by a group discussion. It is particularly useful in teaching the development of leadership or counseling skills. The method is designed to impart human relations skills without the risk inherent in training by other methods.
6. Case Study.
a. The main objective of a case study if for students to learn from experience and develop problem solving skills. When using the case study method, focus the attention of the students upon a specific case, which can be hypothetical or real. Case studies are normally presented in printed form, but may also be presented through the use of pictures, films, role-playing, or oral presentations.
b. After presenting the case study, divide the class into groups to analyze why or how the incident happened and how it can be prevented in the future. Have each group briefly explain their conclusions. By doing this, the class can learn if more than one correct alternative exists.
a. The discussion is an activity in which people talk together to share information about a topic or problem or to seek possible available evidence or a solution. It involves an interchange of ideas by the students while you provide guidance. It stimulates every student to think constructively and encourages students to share their personal experiences and knowledge with their classmates and contribute ideas as a means of solving problems.
b. Initiating discussion and channeling students’ thinking and responses along predetermined lines is called “directed discussion.” This is useful in teaching skills such as problem solving and understanding cause-and-effect relationships.
c. Some methods of the discussion method are included in every other method of instruction except for a straight lecture. The goal in using the discussion method is to actively involve your students in the learning process.
- Define Preventive Counseling and the options available.
- 1. Preventive Counseling is designed to provide help in solving a problem before it results in reduced learning capacity or course failure. Options are:
a. Recommend mandatory remediation.
b. Approve an initial course setback if the student is having difficulty achieving the objectives.
c. An ARB must approve subsequent academic setbacks.
- Performance Counseling may be required in order to prevent failure as the
course progresses. What are some of the things to looks for?
1. Inconsistent study habits.
2. Poor performance on tests.
3. Declining grades.
4. Lack of motivation.
5. Inappropriate conduct (i.e., sleeping in class, excessive tardiness, failure to complete assignments, and lack of attention to classroom or lab activities).
- List various resources available if the counselee requires more than
- ANSWER: Some available resources are: Navy Chaplain, Family Service Center, Drug/Alcohol Counselors, Red Cross, or Navy Relief
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