Glossary of MMG Power of Plagues
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- What brought about plagues?
- -changes in human population and lifestyles!
- What affect did the agricultural revolution have on "plagues"?
- -led to animal domestication and therefor zoonotic diseases
EX: measles from DHPP, SARS from civet cats, HIV from Chimps
- What affect did the industrial revolution have on plagues?
- -led to crowding of pepole together with carriers (ie; rats), polluted water and air, and poor public health measures
- What was the plague of Athens?
- -typhus caused by bacterium Rickettsia spp.
-lead to defeat of Athens by Sparta- turning point in Western civilization!
-430 BC, about 25% of population killed
- What was Roman fever?
- -malaria (bad air) caused by protozoan Plasmodium
-prevalent in marshlands and swamps around rome
-believed to have stopped Attila the Hun and other attacks on Rome!!
- What is the Black Death also known as?
What is the bacterium that caused it?
How many people died between 1346-1353?
- -bubonic plague
-20 million people in Europe
- How long did it take for the population to return to the former size in Europe?
- 150 years
- How many people would die daily in populations of about 500,000?
- -500 a day!
- In 1860's how many Chinese died?
- -200 million people
- What was the result of the Black Plague?
- -led to public health measures of quarantine (40 days: either dead or recovered) and restriction of travel
-discrimination; Jews accused of poisoning wells and 900 were burned alive, in Italy they were forced to wear yellow star of David, others emigrated to Poland with tolerant king Casimir
- Today, how many cases of the Black Death occur?
Deaths from this?
Across how many countries?
- -28,570 cases
- What is war fever known as?
What agent causes it?
How is it transmitted?
- -Typhus Fever
-Rickettsia prowazekii (relative of Rickettsia rickettsii which causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever)
-transmitted by body lice
- Who are some good examples of Typhus fever?
- -Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain fought the Moors over Granada (17,000 of 20,000 died from Typhus fever)
-Napolean's Army of 500,000 invaded Russia (220,000 died from typhus and 100,000 from disease)
- What did the Germans contribute to Typhus fever?
- -German chemists synthesized Zyklon-B, a cyanide derivative, to fumigate and delouse railroad cars
-Germans also used this to murder Jews in "delousing stations" in concentration camps
- What plague has been estimated to have killed more than half the people who have ever lived?
What protozoan causes it?
-protozoan Plasmodium spp.
- Currently, how many cases of Malaria are seen yearly?
Who is famously alleged to have died of malaria at age 32?
- -300 to 500 million cases yearly (2-3 deaths/yr)!
-Alexander the Great
- What bacterium attacks water most commonly as well food-borne?
What does this bacterium cause?
- -Vibria cholerae
- What disease is the greatest epidemic of the 19th century?
What groups of peoples are carriers?
- -cholera (currently ongoing)
- How was Smallpox introduced to the "New World"?
- -Spaniards brought it over from the Old World
- What was the greatest epidemic of the 18th century?
What causes it?
- -Smallpox (Spotted Plague)
-virus (actual one not listed)
- What cuased the start of slave trade?
- -British in French and Indian War used smallpox to attack Indians
-It was so devastating to Natives that colonists were forced to import slaves from Africa to do work
- What is the Peoples Plague?
What causes this?
-bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Who went to Africa to recover from TB and changed the face of Africa forever?
- -Cecil Rhodes
- Today, how many people are infected with TB?
- -1 person every second
-death every 18 seconds
-over next decade, predicted 30 million people will die
- Who was the first person to actually see microbes?
- -Dutch tailor Antoni van Leeuwenhoek in 1674
-constructed crude microscope capable of seeing "wee animalcules"
-plaque between teeth
- How was spontaneous generation disproved and by whom?
What resulted from this finding?
- -Swan Neck Flask
-the Scientific Method
- What is the Scientific Method?
- 1) Observe
5) Accept, Reject, Modify hypothesis
6) Theory or Law
- Who developed Germ Theory Postulates?
What is the purpose of it?
- -Robert Koch
-Tests to determine if a disease can be attributed to an organism
- What are the stages of Koch's Postulates?
- 1) Suspected germ must be present in every case of the disease
2) Germ must be isolated and grown in pure culture
3) Cultured germ must cause disease when inoculated into a healthy susceptible experimental host
4) Same germ must be reisolated from the diseased experimental host
- What are the three domains of life?
Who came up with these??
- What are the majority of bacteria?
-non-bacterial microbes that have many similarities to animal cells
- What are Archeae?
- -primitive prokaryotes that live in extreme environments such as in extreme salinity or temperature
- What are 4 criteria for classifying microbes?
- -size and shape
-mode of propulsion
- What are the two categories of prokaryotes?
- What are the cellular morphologies for cocci?
-sarcina (round cluster)
-staphylo (large random cluster)
- What other shapes are there besides cocci?
- How many cells constitute a typical colony?
- -10^6 to 10^8 cells per colony
- What is the famous term associated with viruses that you can never remember? :)
- -obligate intracellular parasites
- What category do yeasts and molds belong to?
Which one is multicellular?
How do they reproduce?
-multi= molds (hyphae: sexual and asexual spores)
-single= yeasts (budding, some have sexual spores)
- What are Protozoa's?
Describe them and how they move.
- -single celled eukaryotes that are similar in their nutritional needs and cellular structure
-typically live freely in water (some in hosts)
-most reproduce asexually (some sexually)
-use pseudopodia, cilia, flagella to move
- Describe Algae and how it's categorized?
- -unicellular or multicellular
-simple reproductive structures
-categorized on basis of pigmentation, storage products, and composition of cell wall
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