Glossary of MMG Autoimmune Disease
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- What are the four hypersensitivites?
*List from Type 1= 1, etc
- 1) Immediate hypersensitivity
2) Cytotoxic hypersensitivity
3) Immune-Complex Mediated hyperseneitivity
4) Delayed or cell-mediated hypersensitivity
- How do malfunctions of immune system cause morbidity or martality?
- *by overreaction or underreaction
- What cells are involved in Type 1 hypersensitivity?
- -mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils
-red blood cells
-activated T cells
- Describe Type I hypersensitivity.
- -localized (common) or systemic reactions that result from the release of inflammatory olecules in response to an antigen
-develop within seconds or minutes of antigen exposure (allergens)
- What are some locations for localized allergic reactions?
- -inhaled: respiratory tract response or lungs)
- How do you treat allergic, localized reactions?
- What is bad about systemic reactions in an allergic reaction?
- -life threatening!
- what happens in systemic allergic reactions?
- -degranulation of many mast cells at once= release of lots of histamine and inflammatory mediators!
- What can result from systemic allergic reactions?
- -acute anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock
- What are signs of anaphylactic shock?
- -bronchial smooth muscle contracts violently
-leakage of fluid from blood vessels may cuase swelling of laynx and other tissues
-contraction of smooth muscles of intestines and bladder
- How do you treat systemic allergic reactions?
- -treat promptly with epinephrine!
- When does Type II hypersensitivity occur?
- -results when cells are destroyed by an immune response
-often due to combined activites of complement and antibodies
- Which Hypersensitivity is a component of many autoimmune diseases?
- -Type II
- What are two examples of Type II hypersensitivity?
- -destruction of blood cells after incompatable blood transfustion
-destructions of fetal red blood cells in hemolytic disase of newborn
- What type of blood is the universal donor?
- What are the two antigens found in blood?
- -A and B
- How do complications arrive from wrong blood being donated?
- -donors antigens atimulate production of antibodies in recipient which bind and destroy transfused cells by macrophage and neutrophil-based phagocytosis and by complement-based hemolysis
- What happens if a recipient in blood transfusion already has preexisting antibodies to blood?
- -immediate destruction of donated blood
- What are immune-complexes?
- -antigen-antibody complexes (important players in Type III)
- In Type III hypersensitivity, what types of reactions can occur?
- -systemic or localized
- What conditions/diseases can Type III hypersensitivity cause?
- -sequela disease
- What is a sequela disease?
What is Glomerulonephritis a sequela disease from?
- -disease caused by a preceding disease or injury in the same individual
- What is Glomerulonephritis?
- immune complexes circulating in bloodstream are deposited on walls of glomeruli
-damage to these cells impedes blood filtration
-this results in kidney failure and death
- Describe Type IV hypersensitivity.
- -inflammation due to contact with certain antigens occurs after 12-24 hours
-delay reflects time it takes for macrophages and T cells to migrate to and proliferate at the site of the antigen
-ex; tuberculin response, graft rejection, allergic contact dermatitis
- In the Tuberculin response, what does the skin react with?
- -tuberculin (protein solution from Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
*only if exposed to tuberculosis or the vaccine!
- What is a positive Tuberculin Response look like?
- -red hard swelling develops
-Memory T cells secrete cytokines that attract more T cells and macrophages in a slow inflammatory response
*macrophages ingest and destroy tuberculin; back to normal
- What does autoimmunity mean?
- -body produces antibodies and cytotoxic T cells that target normal body cells
- What are some common features of autoimmune disease?
- -occur more often in older individuals
-more common in women than men
- What happens in molecular mimicry?
- -infectious agent has an antigenic determinant that is similar or identical to a self-antigen
-body produces autoantibodies (destroy body tissues)
- What happens in Rheumatic Fever?
- -antibodies generated against S pyogenes M protein cross-react with host tissues, especially heart valve tissue
- What plays an important (though bad) role in immunodeficiency disease?
- -opportunistic infections
- What are the primary cause of immunodeficiency diseases?
- -result from genetic or developmental defect in infants and young children
- What is an acquired cause of immunodeficiency disease?
- -direct consequence of some other recognized cause in later life
- What are two causes of 'acquired cause' in immunodeficiency disease?
- -severe stress; suppression of cell-mediated immunity results from an excess production of corticosteroids, which is toxic to T cells
-malnutrition and environmental factors; inhibits production of B cells and T cells
- What must an individual have to be diagnosed with AIDS?
- -tests positive for HIV or HIV antibodies
-low CD4 T-cell count
-one or more opportunistic infections or atypical cancers
- What increases the chance of contracting AIDS?
- -sexual promiscuity
-intravenous drug use
-sexual intercourse with anyone in previous categories
- What are the three HIV ssRNA retroviruses?
Which is more virulent?
+HIV-1 (99% of global cases)
- Where did HIV arise from?
- -mutation of simian immunodeficiency virus in African chimpanzees in Cameroon
- What does HIV attack in the body?
- -cells displaying CD4 cell surface protein (macrophages and TH cells)
- Where is HIV found?
- -blood, semen, saliva, vagina secretions, breast milk
*blood and semen most effective
- Describe how HIV infects CD4 cells.
- -HIV gp120 interacts with macrophage CD4 protein
-this complex interacts with chemokine coreceptors
-complex forms docking site for HIV envelope-cell membrane fustion
- What eventually kills the HIV host?
- -loss of 70% of T-cell pool allows for opportunistic infections to kill host
- In HIV, what are the chemokine coreceptors?
- -CCR5 on macrophages
-CXCR4 on TH cells
- What are the three main categories of Anti-HIV drugs?
- -nucleoside analogs (such as AZT)
-non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs such as nevirapine)
-protease inhibitors such as saquinavir
- What is the drug composition for HIV?
- -a cocktail consisting of 1 protease inhibitor and 2 nucleoside analogs
HAART= highly active antiretroviral treatment
- How do nucleoside analogs work?
- -act as reverse transcriptase inhibitors
- How do protease inhibitors work?
- -inhibit HIV proteases and virus maturation
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