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Glossary of MIS chapter 2

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Central Processing Unit
CPU
CPU
The part of the computer that consists of two primary elements, the arithmetic logic unit and the control unit
arithmetic/logic unit
ALU
ALU
portion of the cpu that performs mathematical calculations and makes logical comparisons
control unit
part of the cpu that sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data in and out of the ALU, primary storage, and even secondary storage and various output devices
instruction time
the time it takes to perform the fetch-instruction and decode-instruction steps of the instruction phase
execution time
the time it takes to execute an instruction and store the results
machine cycle
the instruction phase followed by the execution phase
clock speed
a series of electronic pulses, produced at a predetermined rate, that affect machine cycle time
wordlength
the number of bits the CPU can process at one time
Moore's Law
a hypothesis that states that transistor densities on a single chip will double every 18 months
superconductivity
a property of certain metals that allows current to flow with minimal electrical resistance
byte
eight bits together that represent a single character of data
RAM-random access memory
a form of memory in which instructions or data can be temporarily stored
read-only memory (ROM)
a nonvolatile form of memory
multiprocessing
simultaneous execution of two or more instructions
coprocessor
part of the computer that speeds processing by executing specific types of instructions while the CPU works on another processing activity
parallel processing
a form of multiprocessing that speeds processing by linking several processors to operate at the same time, or in parallel
secondary storage
devices that store larger amounts of data, instructions, and information more permanently than allowed with main memory, also called permanent storage
sequential access
retrieval method in which data must be accessed in the order in which it is stored
direct access
retrieval method in which data can be retrieved without the need to read and discard other data.
Sequential access storage device
SASD
SASD
device used to sequentially access secondary storage data
direct access storage device
DASD
DASD
device used for direct access of secondary storage data
magnetic tape
common secondary storage medium; Mylar film coated with iron oxide, with portions of the tape magnetized to represent bits
magnetic disk
common secondary storage medium, bits are represented by magnetized areas
redundant array of independent/inexpensive disks
RAID
RAID
method of storing data that allows the system to create a "reconstruction map" so that if a hard drive fails, it can rebuild lost data
storage area network
SAN
SAN
technology that uses computer servers distributed storage devices and networks to tie the storage system together
optical disk
a rigid disk of plastic onto
which data is recorded by special lasers that physically burn pits in the disk
compact disk read-only memory
(CD-ROM
a common form of optical
disk on which data, once it has been
recorded, cannot be modified
magneto-optical disk
a hybrid
between a magnetic disk and an
optical disk
digital versatile disk
storage medium used to store digital video or computer data
Expandable storage-devices
storage that uses removable disk cartridges to provide additional storage capacity
voice-recognition device
an input device that recognizes human speech
digital computer camera
input device used with a PC to record and store images and video in digital form
pixel
a dot of color on a photo image or a point of light on a display screen
magnetic ink character recognition
MICR
MICR
system for reading data on the bottom of a check or other form using magnetic ink
point-of-sale devices
terminals used in retail operations to enter sales information into the computer system
MP3
music format for the internet; abbreviation for motion picture experts group audio layer 3
personal computer
relatively small, inexpensive computer system, sometimes called a microcomputer
network computer
a cheaper-to-buy and cheaper-to-run version of the personal computer that is used primarily for accessing networks and the Internet
workstation
computer that fits between high-end microcomputers and low-end midrange computers in terms of cost and processing power
Web appliance
a device that can connect to the internet, typically through a phone line
midrange computer
formerly called a minicomputer, a system about the size of a small three-drawer file cabinet that can accommodate several users at one time
mainframe computer
large, powerful computer often shared by hundreds of concurrent users connected to the machine via terminals
supercomputers
the most powerful computer systems with the fastest processing speeds
computer server
a computer designed for a specific task, such as network or internet applications
computer programs
sequences of instructions for the computer
documentation
text that describes the program functions and helps the user operate the computer system
systems hardware
the set of programs designed to coordinate the activities and functions of the hardware and various programs throughout the computer system
computer system platform
the combination of a particular hardware configuration and system software package
application software
programs that help users solve particular computing problems
sphere of influence
the scope of problems and opportunities addressed by a particular organization
personal productivity software
software that enables users to improve their personal effectiveness, increasing the amount of work they can do and its quality
user interface
element of the operating system that allows individuals to access and command the computer system
operating system
a set of computer programs that control the computer hardware and act as an interface to application programs
command-based user interface
a user interface that requires that text commands be given to the computer to perform basic activities
Graphical user interface
GUI
GUI
an interface that uses icons and menus displayed on screen to send commands to the computer system
application program interface
API
API
interface that allows applications to make use of the operating system
multitasking
capability that allows a user to run more than one application at the same time
time-sharing
capability that allows more than one person to use a computer system at the same time
scalability
the ability of the computer to handle an increasing number of concurrent users smoothly
proprietary software
a one-of-a-kind program for a specific application
off-the-shelf software
existing software program
contract software
software developed for a particular company
application service provider
ASP
ASP
a company that provides both end-user support and the computers on which to run the software from the user's facilities
software suite
a collection of single-application software packages in a bundle
programming language
coding schemes used to write both systems and application software
syntax
a set of rules associated with a programming language
Hardware devices work together to perform 4 things
input, processing, data storage, and output
Processing is performed by an interplay between the ____ and ____
CPU and memory
________ or memory, provides working storage for program instructions and data to be processed and provides them to the ___
Primary storage; CPU
Together, a ___ and _____ process data and execute instructions
CPU; memory
Processing that uses several processing units is called
multiprocessing
One form of multiprocessing uses ________
coprocessors
__________ execute one type of instruction while the CPU works on others
coprocessors
________ processing involves linking several processors to work together to solve complex problems
parallel
Computer systems can store larger amounts of data and instructions in _____________, which is less volatile and has greater capacity than memory.
secondary storage
Storage media can be either ___ access or ____ access
sequential ;direct
Common forms of secondary storage include
magnetic tape, magnetic disk, optical disk storage, and PC memory cards
______ is a method of storing data that allows the system to more easily recover data in the event of a hardware failure
RAID or redundant array of independent/inexpensive disks
_____ uses computer servers, distributed storage devices and networks to provide fast and efficient storage
SAN-storage area network
____ and _____ devices allow users to provide data and instructions to the computer for ______ and allow subsequent storage and output.
input; output; processing
Input and output devices are part of a ____ _________ through which humans interact with computer systems
user interface
Input and output devices vary widely, but they share common characteristics of ____ ______
speed and functionality
______ are input devices that convert images and text into _____ digits
Scanners; binary
_________devices are terminals with scanners that read and enter codes into computer systems
Point-of-sale (POS)
___ _____ ___are terminals with keyboards used for transactions
Automatic teller machines (ATMs)
Output devices provide information in different forms, from ____ ____to sound to ___ _____.
hard copy; digital format
Display monitors are standard output devices; monitor quality is determined by 3 things, name them.
size, number of colors that can be displayed, and resolution
Other output devices include ___ and ___
printers and plotters.
The main computer system types are personal computers, ______ computers, _____computers, and supercomputers
midrange; mainframe
Personal computers (PCs) are small, inexpensive computer systems. Two major types of PCs are _____ and ____ computers
desktop;laptop
__________ computers are increasingly popular for portable computing and communications needs
Handheld (palmtop)
___ ____add features and capabilites to other products such as automobiles and household appliances
Embedded computers
The network computer is a diskless, inexpensive computer used for accessing _____ ________ and the_____
server-based applications;Internet.
______ _____connect users to the Internet
Web appliances
Workstations are advanced PCs with 3 greater things.
memory, processing, and graphics abilities
Midrange computers are filing cabinet-size computers that have greater ___ ______ and support ___ ____
secondary storage;transaction processing.
Even larger mainframes have higher processing capabilities, while supercomputers are ___ ____ computers used to solve the most intensive computing problems.
extremely fast
There are two main categories of software: .
systems software and application software
________is a collection of programs that act as a buffer between hardware and application software
Systems software
Application software enables people to solve_________and perform _________ ____
problems; specific tasks.
An _____ ______ is a set of computer programs that controls the computer hardware to support users' computing needs
operating system (OS)
OS hardware functions convert an ______ from an application into a set of instructions needed by the ______
instruction; hardware
The OS also serves as an ______between application programs and hardware, allowing hardware independence
intermediary
_____ ______involves controlling storage access and use by converting ____ _____into physical locations and by placing data in the best storage space.
Memory management; logical requests
Task management allocates computer resources through two things:
multitasking and time-sharing.
With _______, users can run more than one application at a time
multitasking
________allows more than one person to use a computer system at the same time.
Time-sharing
An OS also provides a ____ _____, which allows users to access and command the computer.
user interface
Over the years, several popular operating systems have been developed. These include several ___ _____systems used primarily on mainframes
proprietary operating
MS-DOS is an early OS for IBM-compatibles. Newer versions, such as Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows NT, Windows ME, and Windows XP are fully functional operating systems with ____ _____ ______
graphical user interfaces
Apple computers typically use a proprietary operating system, the Mac OS. ____is the leading portable operating system, usable on many computer system types and platforms. Linux is an operating system whose source code is available to everyone.
Unix ; Linux
Application software may be proprietary or off-the-shelf. Although there are literally hundreds of computer applications that can help individuals at school, home, and work, the primary ones are (list 5).
word processing, spreadsheet analysis, database, graphics, and on-line services
Application software applies the power of the computer to solve ______ and _____ ______ ____ Application software can support individuals, groups, and organizations.
problems; perform specific tasks.
User software, or ___ ____ ____, includes general-purpose programs that enable users to improve their personal _______, increasing the amount of work and its quality
personal productivity software; effectiveness
Software that helps groups work together is often referred to as _____. _____ software that benefits the entire organization can also be developed or purchased.
groupware; Enterprise
Three approaches organizations use to obtain applications are as follows: (1) build _____ _____software, (2) buy existing programs ___ ____ ____, or (3) use a combination of ______and off-the-shelf application software
proprietary application;off the shelf; customized
There are five generations of _______languages, plus ____ ______programming languages
programming; object-oriented
End users learn and typically use fourth-generation programming languages such as
visual C++, Visual Basic, Focus, Powerhouse and SAS
These fourth-generation languages are less ______ and more Englishlike than the first three generations of programming languages, which are typically used by
procedural; IS professionals
_____ _____programming languages, such as Small talk, C++, C#, 'and Java, use groups of related data, instructions, and procedures called objects, which serve as reusable modules in various programs.
Object-oriented
These object-oriented programming languages can reduce program development and testing time. ____can be used to develop applications on the Internet
Java
According to the Pentagon and the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, there are typically ___ to ____in every 1000 lines of code
5;15
Software manufacturers want to ____ their software to lock in a steady, predictable stream of revenue from customers and to encourage customers to move to the latest releases of their software products to _____the effort required to support out-of-date p
license; minimize
There are numerous types of software licenses to help accomplish these objectives including (list 4)
capacity based, network service, subscription and volume based.

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