Glossary of MICROBIOLOGY UNIT I and II exam

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Father of Microbiology
First to document shapes of bacteria , made over 250 microscopes
Anton Von Leeuwenhook
Father of Bacteriology-disproved the theory of spontaneous generation and postulated germ theory.
Developed Preventative RX for Rabies, helped wine makers by dev'ing process to lessen amount of bacteria in wine by warming
Louis Pasteur
Developed lab techniques including staining, agar -solidifying agent, smears and discovered the cause of anthrax, proved germ theory
Robert Koch
First to apply antiseptic rx for wound infections Father of ANTISEPTIC SURGERY, used phenol on wounds
Joseph Lister
Father of Chemotherapy
discovered magic bullet- new drugs for disease- salvarsan compound 606 for rx of gonorrhea
Paul Erlich
discovered etiological agent of gonorrhea
A. Neisser
Discovered penecillin and lysozymes
Alexander Fleming
Crystalized the 1st virus
Wendall Stanley
gave first info on the structure of rna and dna by building large models
Watson and Creek
used tissue cultures to grow viruses
Edna Steinhardt
Worked on pathology of scarlet fever
Gladys Dick
introduced the use of embryonated chicken eggs to grow viruses
Alice Woodruff
Discovered the first vaccination for small pox using variolation a qualitative experiment where pustular material of small pox placed on an uninfected person-became resistant to infection.
the study of biological classification , classifies, names and identifies characteristics
TAXONS- arrangements
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
(kings play chess on fine green squares)
Spontaneous generation/abiogenesis
vs. biogenesis
Biogenesis- belief that all living things come from living things
Microbiology definition
The study of organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye
List /explain the branches of microbiology
Bacteriology Immunology
List the differences between
Eucaryotes and procaryotes
1.Pro-no true nuc EU- tr. nuc
2. no nuc membr eu-cell mem
3.1chromo per cell- many
4. has only protopl eu-cytopl and nucleop
5. bacteria eu-yeast molds para and animals
Ubiquity of Microbes- means
That microbes are everywhere on everything and aseptic techniques are needed
describe and discuss Binomial Nomenclature
binomial- 2 nomenclature-names -system that helps scientists classify allthings
using the Genera and species
Five Kingdom System by Cornell Whitaker
are divided by cellular organization, and nutritional pattern
Procaryote-bacteria, Protista-protozoa, Fungi-yeasts Animalia-mammals, Plantae-multicellular, photosynthetic
mag-to make larger by curving light waves
res-to define, clarif and separate characteristics depends on amount of light
par=in focus at one obj will be close to in focus at others
Ref-bending of light as it passes from 1 sub to another
kinds of microscopes and their values
LIGHT .2=common multipurp
UV-.2 bes for diagnosis-dyes
ELECTRON-TEM trnsmiss.5nm dinest detail struct of cells virusesSEM SCAn-10nm3 dem image external surface
Explain the use of Oil Immersion
maximizes resolving power by forming a continuous medium to transmit a beam of light from condenser to obj-increases numerical aperture (efficiency of lens bending light)
Germ Theory of Disease
Diseases arise from the infection of a subject with certain microbes
pastuer studied, koch proved
First successful vaccination
by Edward Jenner, involving small pox vaccination, using variolation
significance of work of leeuwenhoek
bacteriology father because he was the fist to produce precise correct descriptions of organims using micros he made himself.
compare the magnifying abilities of light and electron microscopes
2000x for light and UV
100,000x for SEM
1,000,000 for TEM
compare spherical an dchromatic aberration
spherial aberration is caused by irregularities in the lens that cause an object to have a curved appearance- chromatic ab-rainbow like image caused by lens acting like a prism breaking out colors from white light
Antibiosis (not an objective)
process by which one organims produces chemicals that inhibit growth of others, ex, penicillium
functions /purposes of types of light microscopes
beneficial industry of microbes
decomposers/scrubbing technology ex. oil spill eating bacteria,
UNIT II composition of structures found in eucaryotic cells but not procaryotic cells
golgi apparatus
INCREASED ribosomes
lysosomes, mitochondria
II Bacterial plasma membrane
internal structure, and description
made up of phospholipids and protein, thin fragile, living dynamic structure which surrounds protoplasm regulates movemint into/out of cell, secretes toxins, enzyomes, active transport
II typical cell structure contains
cell membrane, nuclear material, organelles engaged in metabolic functions (ribos) and inclusions(non living molec. sulfur granule, etc can be used for energy)
II Shapes of bacteria
Cocci, bacilli, spirals, in singles, diplo, strepto, staphylo, micro, tetra, palisades, vibrios and pleomorphic
II structures within the procaryote vs eucaryote
pro-nucleoid, protoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall ( pro), eucaryotes have nucleus, cyto and nucleoplasm organelles- more ribosomes in euc.,
II desc. production of an endospore and how it enables bact to survive harsh environs
sporeformer starts elongating chromosomal material, an end of this string becomes surrounded and cinched by the cell membrane, after which it dev. it's own hard capsule. calcium within the spore helps expel water and when the outer mother cell dies, the spore will survive dormant but viable until conditions improve and it then becomes vegetative
II organelles in the eucaryotic cell not found in procaryotes
Nucleus, Golgi complex, mitchodria, chloroplasts, cytoskeleton,
II special structures found in some bacteria and their function
Pilus-genetic distrib, Fimbrae-adhes, flagella, capsules-protect, slime layers-adhesion
location of flagella and endospore
amphi, lopho, a, peri
compare and contrast the locationand function of spores/and capsules
the capsule is a surface structure on the outside of a vegetative cell,which protects it , spores are dormant yet viable complete cells that will become vegetative cells when conditions are habitable but stay dormant in adverse conditions.
discuss microbial genetics
the language of the cell. DNA
genetics is the study of the transfer of information between biological entities.
examples of macromols
large molecular compounds assembled from smaller subunits, notably biochemicals
Define Genome
the sum total of genetic material in a cell
Dfine recombination
type of genetic transfer in which dna from one organism is donated to another
dfine transformation

chromosome released by a lysed cell breaks into fragments small enough to be accepted by a recipeint cell and that dna retains it's genetic code, nonspecific accceptance by bacterial cell of small fragments by bacterial dna is transformation
PiggyBACK DNA the process by which a bacteriaophage serves as a carrier of DNA from a donor cell to a recipient cell is transduction
flagella arrangements
atrichous- none
amphitrichous-on each end
peritrichous=scattered around
lophotrichous bunch at one end
usual method of reproduction in bact. cell
binary fission
-breaking down to sm.molec
-building up of sm molec to large
-the sum of all cellular chemical and physical activities
define enzyme and role in metabolism
speed up reactions by lowering energy of activation-- makes metabolism possible. enzymes can be reused.
Codon definition
a triplet of bases in the R Rna which coldes for a given amino acid
anticodon-triplet of bases t-rna-serves as recognition site
steps in protein synthesis in bacterial cell
replication=dna reps itself to mrna- transcription
proteins catalyze -cellular reactions, 1 strand of dna serves as template
many varied shapes bacillus
cigar shaped bacillus t\yp
polarly v's t's threes
ribonucleic acid
consists of rna nucleotides
ribose sugar, contains uracil instead of thymine
single helix instead of double
usefulness of genetic recombination
production of insulin
somatostatin (GIH)
human growth hormone
interferon and vaccines like hep b
where does atp production take place in the eucaryote?
and the procaryote
eu- mitochondria
pr0 cell membrane
small circular dna molecules that can exist independantly of the host, contains genes and it's genetic info is NOT essential to the host=extrachromosomal
functions of plasmids
can confer antibiotic resistnace
can code for toxin production
can code for hte production of enzymes
can degrade peticides oil and other chemicals
mRna-messenger rna, compsed of nucleotides, long linear single helix, carries code for prduction of protein specific amino acids at ribosome- 3 codon unit
smaller than messenger, "box car" to ribosome, contains anticodon the amino acid binding site for codon (mrna)
ribosomal rna holds the rna in position

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