Glossary of MH III Essay 1
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- Baroque Era, and what triggereed change?
- (1600-1750) Bach Dies
- Classical Era
- Romantic Era
- Baroque Era Characteristics
- Major/Minor Tonalities
- Bach introduced what to music?
- Rapid Harmoni Motion, Counterpoint.
- What is significant about every era?
- Tends to be the reaction of the previous era.
- Who leads us to the Romantic Period?
- CPE Bach
- What are the main characteristics of the romantic period
- Individuality, and emotion
- What is the basis of all chamber music
- Large Sonata Form
- What is Large Sonata Form?
- 4 movements.
1. (Fast) Sonata Allegro
2. (Slow) Theme and variations, Binary or ternary.
3. (18th Century) Minuet and trio, tripple meter. (19th Century) Scherzo and Trio, fast tripple meter.
4. Sonata Allego, Rondo (A-b-a-c-a-b-a), Choconne
- What is Sonata Allegro Form
- Intro (No Tunes)
Exposition (3 Tunes, Home Key and V Key)
Development (Motivic Modulation)
Recapitulation (3 tunes, all home key)
- Series of repaeated notes
- Series of repeated harmony
- Large sonata without the third movement.
- Cyclic Motion
- repeating material from one movement in another.
- Ivory Tower (1st Aesthetic)
- 19th century. No interest in style or fasion. 2 types of music: Piano or Serious (string quartet or symphonic) music and live off the royalties. Interested in self immortality, no patronage neccessary.
- Patronage System
- Catholic, protestand, and lutheran chucrches, Calvinistic branch, Aristocracy, and Govt.
- First of the romantics who died for his music
- Wrote for his own immortality
- Nationalism (2nd Aesthetic)
- Utilizing your culture to imprint your music. Folk tunes, folk melodies, ethnic materials.
- Conflict Between words and music. (3rd Aesthetic)
- Begins to disinigrate during the 19th century. Program music
- Program Music
- 1.) descriptive-person, place, thing, event
2.) Philosophical starting point- Something stuns you and makes you want to create.
- Timbre, and Tonal Language (4th aesthetic)
- "Tone color"- Piano forte, valves for brass, String instruments change, woodwind fingerings change. Chromatacism, and tone center dissappears.
- Creates a new bow for violin
- Historicism (5th aesthetic)
- The study of music of the past, Publishers allow this to happen.
- Romantic Classicist Characteristics
- Structured MElody, Homophonic Texture, Static Harmonic Motion, Put into structure-Large Sonata Form, Conservative.
- Avante Guarde Characteristics
- Interested in timbre/tone color and changing and expanding the harmonic language, Expanding on instruments, Make virtuosic playing an art form in itself.
- Who are the post romantic composers who lead us into the 20th century
- Strauss, Bruckner, and Mahler
- Beethoven 3 Stylistic Periods
- Envision by D'Indy, Immitation, Externalization, and Reflection
- 1. Immitation (Beethoven)
- First Piece Op1, No1. Opus 18 String Quartet. First 2 Symphonies. 4 movements. More virtuosic, utilizes changes in instruments. Similar to Hayden or Mozart but more elaborate.
- 2. Externalization
- Symphony 3-8, Emperor Concerto. Deeply romantic period. Utilizes large sonata in different ways. Virtuosit an element. Sonata form is expanded. Emotion, timbe, and tone color become important ot beethoven
- 3. Reflection
- Utilized historicism, Moves away from difficult writing. More difficult Harmonically. 9th symphony. Opus 127-133 (Quartet)Motivic development and variation. Influenced by bach.
- Murky Bass
- Octave eight notes
- (1809-1847)0 Lived rfrom mountain tops. Wealthy family, great education. Grandson of Moses MEndelssohn (Philosopher).Lived in berlin, big house, lots of aprties. University of Berlin with Hagel, Goethe. Huge repuatation, Heir to beethoven.
- Mendelssohn instrumental works
- Organ, Piano, Chamber, Orchestral, Symphnies. Structure based on large sonata forms. Progromatic overtures.
- Vocal works
- Oratorios: Elijah, St. Paul
- Small scale vocal work
- Large scale with arias and recitative. Not always liturgical, tells a story.
- improviseed solo section
- (1810-1849) (Romantic) Polish/French. Wrote only for piano. "Poet of Piano" Wrote character pieces
- Character piece
- Short keyboard piece expressing a mood or idea. (Romantic)
- Bercuese (CP)
- Songlike piece
- Baladde (CP)
- epic poem, longer bercuese
- Etude (CP)
- study piece
- Prelude (CP)
- Short Work
- Impromptu (CP)
- spontaneous, written improv
- Fantasy (CP)
- free and immaginative
- Scherzo (CP)
- Joke, Longer
- Nocturne (CP)
- night piece
- Chopin dance pieces
- Waltz- stylized dances. Polonaise and Muzurkes- Court dance
- Stretching time
- Inspired Liszt. thought to be without a soul, Great violin player, etc.
- Inspired by paganini, generous with fortune, first to give solo recital, turned piano sideways.
- Concert overture
- Indepentent one movement work. Often Sonata form "1812 Overture" Tchaikovsky.
- Incidental Music
- music written to be played around acts of a play. Overture with 5-6 other pieces, Ex. Mendelssohns music for Am Midsummer Nights Dream.
- Tone Poem, or Symphonic Poem.
- One movement, long coplex, Free structure, Liszt Berloiz and Strauss, Les Preludes.
- Hector Berloiz
- French composer known for his program music.
- Berlioz Symphony Fantastique
- Program symphony composed for berlioz infatuation with women
- Fixed Idea
- melodic theme associated with a person or object.
- RC Composers
- Beethoven, Mendelssohn,
- AG Composers
- Paganini, Liszt, Chopin,
- Liszt Traits
- father of tone poem, piano composer, patron, you can play him you can play anythin "Virtuosity"
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