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Glossary of MHIII Final

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Sibelius
Modal melodies,
uncomplicated rhythms repetition of motives,
pedal points,
strong contrasts of orchestral timbres and textures
Rachmoninov
Pianist

Created new melodies that sounded fresh and familiar

Did conventional, but in a new way
Satie
Repetitive unresolved music

Commentary inside music, not on program
Schoenberg
Committed to German classic tradition

Used 12 tone method.

Continue tradition, and say something that hadn’t been said before.

Thought nothing should repeated

Organized his atonal music:
Developing variation, integration of harmony and melody, and chromatic saturation.

Created pitch-class set

Created 12 tone method, or row form.

Created Sprechstimme-A form of dramatic declamation between singing and speaking
Berg
Studied with Schoenberg

Mixed atonal, and tonal, with expressive gestures.

Used Sprechstimme

Eventually adapted 12 tone style
Webern
Studied with Schoenberg

Felt music operates under natural law, and not taste.

Adopted 12 tone method.

Pointillism
Stravinsky
Russian nationalist

Frequent ostinatos

Layering blocks of sound

Dissonance based on diatonic, octatonic

Dry, colorful use of instruments

Borrowed Russian folk tunes

Launched neo-classicism

Neotonal-using new way to establish a note as a tonal center.

12 tone-became serial music.

Very influential
Bartok
Combined Hungarian, Romanian, Slovak, and Bulgarian.

Studied Hungarian Peasant music

Used piano as more percussive

Pushed limits of dissonance

Combined classic(formal procedures) with peasant tradition (complex meters, mixed modes)

Used neotonality
Shostakovich
All work was created in a politicized context.

Expand # of movements

Add Voices

Overlay tonal areas

Dense chromaticism

Tight dissonant chords
Copland
Combined modernism and American national idioms

Gay, Jewish, Leftie

Borrowed traditional songs

Wide spaced sonorities, octaves, and fifths.
John Cage
Focused on new sounds

Prepared piano-inserting objects in between strings

Influenced by Buddhism

Used: Chance, indeterminacy, and blurring art, music, and life.
Atonal School
Led us into 20th century

Post WWII

Serial, 12 tone school

Schoenberg (Father of Atonal)-2 disciples=Berg and Webern

Berg:

1.) Indeterminacy (John Cage) Philosophical composition technique (“Chance”)
2.) Electronic Music
3.) Minimalism- small idea repeated over and over again

Bitonality-two keys, spread apart

Polytonality

Multiphonics-overtones

Webern-Pointalism
Chromaticism
Utilization of rhythm

Stravinsky-3 Ballet Suite

Firebird
Petrouchka
Rite of Spring

Primitivism-Rousseau
Neo Classicism
18th Century Aesthetics, with 20th century tonal language

fugal writing
church music
linear counterpoint

Stravinsky-Pedal point
Ostinato pattern

Nationalism, French Les Six (Honegger, Poulenc, Milhaud)
Neo Romanticism
Nationalism

1.) 19th century aesthetics, Rejects new work, hate atonal music, compose as if it never occurred.

Sibelius

2.) 19th century aesthetics, 20th century harmonic language

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