Glossary of MHD Cell injury, death, response
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- What can an injury do?
- it can disrupt the chemical processes of the cell or directly damage the chemical components of the cell
- What are the general catagories of injuries?
- hypoxia, physical, chemical, immunologic, biological, genetic, nutritional, aging degeneration
- What happens when a cell is injured?
- it changes function and structure for adaption
- What are the four vulnerable biochemical systems?
- cell membranes, aerobic respiration, ptn synthesis, genetic material
- What biochemical changes determin degree of cel injury or induction of cell death?
- depletion of ATP, oxygen deprivation or O2 free radicals, Ca Concentration, defective cell membrane permeability
- Why do you get cellular swelling with hypoxia?
- because dec in ATP production leads to a dysfunction of the Na pumps, Na inc inside the cell, H2O follows
- What happens with an inc in IC Ca?
- altered membrane permeability and activiation of IC enzymes
- What are the types of free radicals?
- O2 related, non-O2 related
- What are the O2-related free radicals?
- superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical
- How do free radicals cause cell damage?
- lipid peroxidation of membranes, nonperoxidative mitoch damage, lesions to DNA, cross link proteins
- What is the most common causes of steatosis?
- What are the reversible cell injuries?
- cell swelling and steatosis (fatty changes)
- What is the irreverisble cell injury?
- apoptosis or necrosis
- What happens in apoptosis?
- nuclear condensation and fragmentation, cytoplasm forms apoptotic bodies, phagocytosis, no immune Rx,
- When is apoptosis normal?
- embryogensis, hormone dependent physiologic involution, death in proliferating cell populations, immune-related cell death
- What is necrosis?
- structural changes in nucleus and ytoplasm, leukocytes are present, enzymatic breakdown of the cell and denaturation of ptns
- What is coagulation necrosis?
- with severe ischemia in kidney and heart, leaves ghost-like remnants of intact cells lacking nuclei, outline is preserved, cytoplasm in intensly pink
- Which necrosis has an intensly pink nucleus?
- Which necrosis happens in solid organs?
- What is liquifactive necrosis?
- associated with bacterial infections, soft tissues, neutrophils, dead cells, liquid, abscess
- Which necrosis is assocated with baterial infections?
- Which necrosis happens in soft tissues?
- What is caseous necrosis?
- granuloma, amorphous, granular debris in center of granulomatous cell recction, resembles cheese curds?
- Which necrosis is associated with TB?
- Which necrosis looks like cheese curds?
- What is enzymatic fat necrosis?
- focal cell death in pancreas and surrounding fat, lipase is released and digest fat, fatty acids combine with Ca to form insoluble soaps
- Which organ is associated with enzymatic fat necrosis?
- How does enzymatic fat necrosis work?
- pancreas spills lipases, lipases cleave fat in adjacent cells, fatty acids bind with Ca, leave soap
- What is gangrene?
- coagulation necrosis of an extremity can be lquefactive by bacteria contaminate
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