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Glossary of MGT 3310-Chapter 10-Organizational Change

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Benchmarking
A process by which a company compares its performance with that of high-performing organizations.
Proactive change
Planned changes involves making carefully thought-out changes in anticipation of possible or expected problems or opportunities
Reactive change
Making changes in response to problems or opportunities as they arise
Technology
Any machine or process that enables an organization to gain a competitive advantage in changing materials used to produce a finished product.
Adaptive change
This form of change is lowest in complexity, cost and uncertainty
Innovative change
This form of change involves moderate complexity, cost, and uncertainty, and is likely to trigger some fear and resistance among employees
Radically innovative change
This type of change is the most complex, costly and uncertain, and is felt as extremely threatening to managers’ confidence and employees’ job security.
Kurt Lewin
This researcher developed a model of three stages of organizational change
3
How many steps are there for fostering innovation?
Unfreezing stage
In this stage of change employees need to become dissatisfied with the old way of doing things and managers also need to reduce the barriers to change.
Changing stage
In this stage of change employees need to be given the tools for change
Refreezing stage
In this stage of change employees need to be helped to integrate the changed attitudes and behavior into their normal ways of doing things.
John Kotter
As an expert in leadership and change management, this person believes that to be successful organizational change needs to follow eight steps to avoid the eight common errors senior management usually commits
Establish a sense of urgency
What is Kotter’s first step for leading organizational change?
Anchor new approaches in the culture
What is Kotter’s last step for leading organizational change?
Kurt Lewin’s change model
John Kotter’s eight steps for leading organizational change closely correspond with what other stage-model of change?
OD Organization Development
A set of techniques for implementing planned change to make people and organizations more effective
Change agent
A consultant with a background in behavioral sciences who can be a catalyst in helping organizations deal with old problems in new ways.
Managing conflict, revitalizing organizations and adapting to mergers
Name the three things that OD can be used for?
Fundamental Change (not temporary improvements)
Managers and consultants using OD are looking for what type of change?
Processes
With OD the important thing is to focus on _____, not the static boxes and diagrams of an organization chart.
Diagnosis, intervention and evaluation
What are the three stages of the OD process?
Diagnosis
This stage of the OD process answers the question “what is the problem?”
Intervention
The attempt to correct the diagnosed problems
Evaluation
This stage of the OD process answers the question “how well has the intervention worked?”
Survey feedback, process consultation, team building, inter-group development and techno-structural activities
Name 3 of the 5 OD activities for implementing change
Survey feedback
In this OD method for implementing change a questionnaire is distributed to employees to ascertain their perceptions and attitudes. One done meaningful results from the survey are communicated back to employees.
Team building
In this OD method for implementing change work groups are made to become more effective by helping members learn to function as a team.
Intergroup development
In this OD method for implementing change attempts are made to achieve better cohesiveness among several work groups, not just one.
Technostructural activities
In this OD method for implementing change the concern is with improving the work technology or organizational design with people on the job.
Process consultation
In this OD method for implementing change is concerned with the consultant working with and not for the client to help an organization to jointly address organizational problems
Factors to determine the success of an OD intervention
Readiness for change, management support, realistic expectations, access to organization’s resources and multiple interventions are all factors for what?
Product innovation
A change in the appearance or the performance of a product or a service, or the creation of a new one.
Process innovation
A change in the way a product or service is conceived, manufactured or disseminated
Incremental innovations
The creation of products, services or technologies that modify existing ones.
Radical innovation
The creation of products, services or technologies that replace existing ones.
Four
According to Harvard management scholar Rosabeth Moss kanter, innovation has how many characteristics?
Innovation
Innovating is an uncertain business, people closes to the innovation know the most about it, at least initially
“Innovating is an uncertain business”
When you’re innovating, progress is difficult to predict, and the ultimate success of your endeavor is always somewhat in doubt
Provide right organizational culture, provide appropriate resources and provide the correct reward system
What are the three ways to encourage innovation to make it happen over and over
Second
Gaining allies by communicating your visions comes from what stage in fostering innovation?
Third OR Last
Overcoming employee resistance & empowering and rewarding them to achieve progress comes from what stage in fostering innovation?

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