Glossary of MDT Infectious Disease 15.12 Test 1
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- What is an acute febrile illness caused by infection, that is transmitted by small-particle aerosols and deposited on the respiratory epithelium has a Type A and B
- What are the 5 constitutional SX of all viral illnesses?
- What is a rare, but severe complication when ASA is used on a pt. suffering from an Influenza infection?
- Reyes syndrome
- What is an acute systemic infection caused by the RNA virus Morbillivirus?
- Rubeola (Measles)
- What acute systemic infection typically strikes children age 5 or less and is the leading cause of child death in developing countries?
- Rubeola (Measles)
- What is a mild systemic disease caused by the Togavirus?
- Rubella (German Measles)
- In pregnant women the highest risk of complications of Rubella occurs when?
- 1st Trimester of gestation
- Rubella is a mild illness that rarely last longer than how many days?
- 3-4 days
- What is an acute generalized paramyxoviral disease causing inflammation of the salivary glands?
- What acute generalized paramyxoviral disease is the leading cause of pancreatitis in children?
- What is the incubation period for Mumps?
- 14-21 days with an average of 18 days
- What are the SX in the prodrome phase of Mumps
- The constitutional SX
- In Mumps consumption of what could make SX worse?
- Citrus or acidic foods
- In Mumps a high fever could be accompanied by what 2 things?
- Meningitis or Orchitis
- In Mumps, Epididymitis occurs in what % of all cases?
- A female pt. with lower abdominal pain and enlarged overies that has been DX with Mumps can also have what?
- DX of Oophoritis in the operational environment is difficult so the SX should be considered what?
- Surgical Abdomen
- What is a symptomatic infection caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus?
- Infectious Mononucleosis
- Infectious Mononucleosis is most common between what ages?
- What is the classic triad of SX for Infectious Mononucleosis?
- A pt. with pharyngitis, fever, adenopathy, prominent fatigue, malaise, and splenomegaly can be dx' with what?
- Infectious Mono
- Why must you not palapte the spleen of a pt suffering from Infectious Mono?
- You risk creating a surgical abdomen
- What is the hallmark sign of a CBC of a pt. who is suffering from Infectious Mono?
- Atypical lymphocytes totaling 20%
- What is a tx for a pt. who is suffering from Infectious Mono when an impending airway obstruction is suspected?
- Prednisone 60 mg PO QD x 3 days, then taper over 1 wk
- What is a complication of a pt. who is suffering from Infectious Mono?
- Splenic rupture
- A common viral illness characterized by a vesicular rash and fever is defined as?
- Varicella (chicken pox)
- What is the predominant age of a pt who is suffering from chicken pox?
- 5 to 10 yrs old
- Varicella peaks during which time of the year?
- What is the incubation period for Varicella?
- 9 to 21 days
- Symptoms of varicella are generally worse in whom?
- In a varicella infection, when does a fever usually peak?
- With the eruption of the vesicles
- In pt. w/ a varicella infection, how does the rash usually present (lesions)?
- Lesions at different states at the same time
- What med can be given within the first 72 hrs in the tx of varicella infection?
- Acyclovir 800 mg five times a day
- A DNA virus due to the variola virus, that is a human virus with no known nonhuman reservoirs of diseases is defined as?
- Variola (Smallpox)
- When was variola (smallpox) eliminated and how was it eliminated?
- In 1977 through vaccination (routine vaccination has since stopped per student guide)
- When is a pt. infected w/ smallpox most infectious?
- 1st week of infection
- Group of infectious diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses is defined as?
- Viral Hemmorhagic Fever
- What are the 5 genus of viruses that cause Viral Hemmorhagic Fever and what do they cause?
- -Arenaviridae (lassa fever)
-Bunyaviridae (hanta virus & rift valley)
-Filoviridae (ebola & marburg)
-Flaviviridae (tick-borne encephalitis)
-Paramyxoviridae (hendra virus)
- Spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting factor or blood vessel structure is a physical finding in Viral Hemmrhagic Fever that is defined as?
- Hemorrhagic diathesis
- In viral hemorrhagic fever, what is the tx in a pt. who has GI bleeding?
- Zantac 150mg BID
Ice water lavage/gavage
- A viral flavivirus transmitted by an arthropod bite is defined as?
- Dengue fever
- What is the most prominent vector of Dengue Fever?
- Aedes mosquito
- What is the causative vector in Africa of dengue fever?
- Monkey mosquito
- What is the causative vector in Mexico and Texas of dengue fever?
- Asian Tiger Mosquito
- What are initial signs of dengue fever?
- Severe myalgia to back, head, and extremities (break-bone fever). Redness, flsuhing, and blotching of the skin.
- What is the febrile pattern of a pt. who suffers from dengue fever? It's also known as what?
- Initial fever will last 3-7 days, then a remission period followed by another febrile period lasting 1-2 days. (biaphasic fever curve)
- What laboratory finding will you see in the CBC of a pt. who suffers from dengue fever?
- Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia
- A viral disease infection of the liver, having systemic manifestations caused by the Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) is defined as?
- Yellow Fever
- What are the 2 transmission cycles of Yellow Fever?
- A sylvatic (jungle cycle)and urban cycle
- What is involved in the sylvatic (jungle cycle) of YF?
- Mosquito and nonhuman primates
- What is involved in the urban cycle of YF?
- Aedes aegypti mosquito and humans
- In YF, constitutional symptoms, myalgia, conjunctivitis, and bradycardia can be seen in which phase?
- Viremic (early phase)
- In YF, jaundice, oliguria, albuminuria, hemorrhage, encephalopathy, shock and acidosis can be seen in which phase?
- Toxic phase
- What are the 3 stages of YF?
- Viremic (early phase), Brief recovery period, and toxic phase
- What is the tx for GI bleeding in YF?
- Zantac 150 mg PO QD
- An arbovirus encephalitides that produces clinical manifestations in humans is defined as?
- West Nile Virus
- When was West Nile Virus identified in the U.S.?
- How is West Nile Virus transmitted?
- By the Culex Mosquito
- What is the incubation period for West Nile Virus?
- 3 to 14 days, symptoms generally last 3-6 days
- True or false.
Most people infected by West Nile Virus are symptomatic?
Most people are asymptomatic
- A zoonotic disease caused by the spirochete Leptospira interrogans is defined as?
- What are the stages of Leptospirosis?
- Septicemic stage (stage last about 1 wk) and Immune stage
- What physical findings can be seen in the septicemic stage of Leptospirosis?
- Pharyngitis, Lymphadenopathy, Hepatomegaly, Splenomegaly
- What physical findings can be seen in the Immune stage of Leptospirosis?
- Same symptoms of initial phase, with the addition of "aseptic meningitis"
- What is the tx of Leptospirosis?
- Supportive Therapy
Tylenol 500 mg II PO Q6
PCN G 1 M.U. IM Q4
Doxycycline 100 mg PO BID x 7 Days
- A viral (rhabdovirus) encephalitis is defined as?
- What is the incubation period of Rabies?
- 10-90 days. (Incubation periods vary with location of biest and amount of contac made)
- What are the prodromal symptoms of Rabies?
- Constitutional sx's; px or anesthesia at exposure site; psychiatric sx's; sore throat, GI sx's
- What are the phases of Rabies?
- Prodrome and Acute Neurological period
- Larynx, pharynx spasm and severe px when drinking as well as hydrophobia and thick tenacious saliva can be seen in which phase of Rabies?
- Acute Neurological Period
- How is Poliomelitis transmitted?
- Fecal-oral route
- What is seen in the bulbar muscles innervated by cranial nerves during paralytic poliomyelitis?
- Flaccid paralysis w/o sensory defects
- What is the mortality rate in bulbar polio?
- What is the transmission route for HAV?
- Fecal Oral route
- What is the transmission route for HBV?
- Parenteral Route
- What is the transmission route for HCV?
- Parenteral route, iv drug accounts for most cases
- What is the transmission route for HDV?
- Possibly superinfection of HBV
- What is the transmission route for HEV?
- Water borne, ingestion
- What is the transmission route for HGV?
- In which stage of Hepatitis will you see aversion or distaste to smoking as well as fatty, floating, clay stools?
- Prodrome Stage
- What are the 3 stages of hepatitis?
- Prodrome, Icteric, and Convalescent
- What is the transmission method of Salmonellosis?
- Consumption of contaminated food/drink
- Which serotypes of Salmonellosis will cause infection?
- How is the diarrhea described in a pt. who suffers from Salmonellosis?
- What are the latent sx's of Salmonellosis?
- Splenomegaly, Abdominal distension, Bradycardia, and Dicrotic pulse
- What is an acute diarrheal infection?
- What is the causative agent of cholera? How is it transmitted?
- Vibrio cholera and it is transmitted by consumption of contaminated shellfish, h20, food
- In cholera, stool that is liquid gray, turbid and w/o fecal odor, blood or pus is described as?
- Rice water stool
- In cholera, what is the amount of diarrhea that can be produced in 1 day?
- 15 liters
- What is the first rule in the operational tx of cholera?
- Fluid replacement
- What antimicrobials can be used in shortening the course of Cholera?
- What is a complication that can occur from Cholera?
- Shock and Death
- What disease due to its severe toxicity and durability has a great potential to be used as a bioweapon?
- What is the most powerful neurotoxin known to man that prevents acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and autonomic synapses?
- Cranial nerve palsies (bilateral nerve involvement) such as Diplopia, Opthoalmoplegia, dysphagia, dysarthria, and dry mouth are physical findings of what disease?
- What type of GI symptoms can be seen in botulism?
- N/V/D or constipation and cramps
- What medication needs to be given asap (even prior to lab confirmation) in the tx of botulism in the operational setting?
- Antitoxin (trivalent equine botulinum)- antitoxin available at CDC
- In an outbreak of botulism, describe the the prognosis?
- High mortality rate in 1st case of an outbreak, subsequent cases tend to recover completely
- An inflammatory disease of the bowel caused by one of the several species of shigella is described as?
- Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery)
- Outbreaks that occur in crowded conditions, where personal hygien is poor such as jails, mental hospitals, child care centers, and refugee camps; with male homosexuals being at increased risk can be seen in what disease?
- Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery)
- Shigellas are composed of how many species?
- What is the most common isolated species in the U.S. of Shigellosis?
- S. Sonnei
- What is the most serious form of Shigellosis?
- S. Dysenteriae
- In obtaining the medical history of a pt. w/ shigellosis, what are 2 important ?'s to ask?
- Environmental/Social hx
- A specific zoonosis disease involving rodents and their fleas is defined as?
- What continues to be a threat worldwide due to persistent rodent infection?
- What is the infectious agent of Plague? What is the most common vector?
- Yersinia pestis
Oriental rat flea
- What is the incubation period of Plague?
- 1-7 days, plus or minus 2-3 days
- What are 3 initial symptoms that can be of sudden onset in Plague?
- Intense headache, delirium, and tachycardia
- What % of lymph fluid will drain to the inguinial lymph nodes when affected with the Plague
- In Plague what has a high risk of fatality without TX being started within a few hours of onset?
- Fulminant Pneumonitis
- A systemic illness caused by a generalized bacterial infection can be defined as what?
- Bacterial Sepsis (Septicemia)
- What is the approximate number of Gram-negative bacteremia among hospitalized pt.
- What are predisposing factors for a Bacterial Sepsis infection?
- General medical status
- E. Coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphyloccus, Streptococcus, Neisseria meningitides, and Gram-Negative bacteria can cause which disseminated infection?
- Bacterial Sepsis (septicemia)
- What are the less common sources of infection in Bacterial Sepsis?
- What is the tx of Bacterial Sepsis that is based on the possible disease process?
- Broad spectrum IV antibiotics (used judiciously by the IDC)
- What are the four species of Typhus?
- Epidemic (louse bourne)
- What is the causative pathogen in Epidemic (louse bourne) typhus?
- Rickettsia prowazekii
- What is the geographic prevalence for epidemic (louse bourne) typhus?
- North and South America, Africa, and Asia
- What is the causitive pathogen of California flea typhus?
- Rickettsia felis
- What is the geographic prevalence for California flea typhus?
- Southern California and Texas
- What is the causitive pathogen in endemic (murine) typhus?
- Rickettsia typhi
- What is the only typhus with a worldwide geographic distribution?
- Endemic (murine) typhus
- What is the causitave pathogen of scrub typhus?
- Orietia tsutsugamushi
- The prevalence for this type of typhus is Southeast Asia, Japan, and Austalia?
- Scrub typhus
- A macular rash to trunk, axial, then spreading the the rest of the body sparing face, palms, and soles is seen in what type of typhus?
- Epidemic (louse bourne) typhus
- A macularpapular rash concentrated on the trunk and fades rapidly in which type of typhus?
- Endemic (murine) typus
- The development of a flat black eschar with regional lymphadenitis at the site of a bite and a macular rash the appeats primarily to the trunk after a week long fever is present in which typhus?
- Scrub typhus
- What are the late S/S that develop in the second or third week of a typhus infection?
Acute Abd pain
- What is the primary antimicrobial treatment in typhus?
- Doxyclycline 100mg PO BID for 7 days or until 2 days after temp returns to normal
- This is an acute or chronic systemic febrile illness aquired most often via inhalation of feces, placenta, and milk remnants contained in dust.
- Q fever
- What is the incubation period for Q fever?
- 1 to 3 weeks
- In Q fever where might abdominal pain be generalized to?
- In an operational setting what are lab test that should be ordered for Q fever?
- What is the operational treatment for Q fever infection?
- Supportive care
Tylenol 500mg 2 PO q6hrs
O2 and fluids PRN
Doxyclycline 100mg PO BID x 14 - 21 days.
Alternate: E-mycin 500mg PO QID x 14 days
- What are the complications of Q fever?
- Pleural effusions
- What is a febrile arthropod bourne illness?
- Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
- In the U.S. what two ticks are responsible for the transmission of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the west and east?
- Western = Wood tick
Eastern = Dog tick
- What is the incubation period for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
- 3 to 12 days, mean is 7 days.
- In which disease rash appears first to wrist and ankles progressing centrally to the trunk and to include the palms and soles?
- Rocky Mountain Spotted fever with Hx of tick bite.
- In operational setting what labs should be ordered in suspected case of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
RPR, & STD work up
- What is treatment for Rocky Mountain Spotted fever?
- Doxycylcine 100mg PO BID until 2 days after fever.
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