## Glossary of MCAT Physical Sciences

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- If a question gives initial and final velocities, and time, what formula would be used to find displacement?
- d = 1/2 (vo + v)t

- If initial velocity, acceleration, and time are given, what formula would be used to find final velocity?
- v = vo + at

- If initial velocity, time, and acceleration are given, what formula would be used to find displacement?
- d = v(initial)t +/- a(t^2)

- What formula would be used to find final velocity independent of time?
- v(final)^2 = v(initial)^2 + 2ad

- What is the formula for average velocity?
- v(avg) = (change in d)/(change in t)

- What is the difference between averge speed and average velocity?
- Average speed is the total distance traveled per time. Average velocity is the total displacement traveled per time.

- What is happenening to an object's speed if its acceleration is in the same direction as its velocity?
- Its speed is increasing.

- If an object's acceleration is perpendicular to its velocity, what is happening?
- Its speed is constant, but the direction of the velocity is changing.

- If an object's acceleration is opposite its velocity, what is happening?
- The object's speed is decreasing.

- If acceleration is occuring at an angle between 0 and 90 degrees, what is happening?
- The object's speed is increasing and its direction is changing.

- If acceleration is occuring at an angle between 90 and 180 degrees, what is happening?
- The object's speed is decreasing and its direction is changing.

- State Newton's first law.
- An object will resist changes in its velocity.

- State Newton's second law.
- The sum of the forces acting on an object are the product of its mass and the sum of all acceleration vectors.

F = ma

- State Newton's third law.
- F(2 on 1) = -F(1 on 2)

- What is force?
- Force is a push or pull exerted by one object on another.

- What is the relationship between a force and its acceleration?
- Because mass is a positive quantity, the force an object feels always occurs in the direction of its acceleration.

- If an object has a net force of 0, will the object move?
- If the object is already in motion, yes.

- Describe Newton's Law of Gravitation (and formula)
- Every object in the universe exerts a gravitational pull on every other object in the universe.

F(grav) = (GMm)/r^2

- Describe the relationship between an object's weight and Newton's Law of gravitation.
- F(grav) = mg, so:

mg = (GMm)/r^2

g = GM/r^2

- What is an object's normal force?
- Normal force is the force a surface exerts on objects resting upon it. If an object is resting on a flat, horizontal surface, its Fnet = 0. The object's gravitational force = -mg. The object's normal force = mg.

- What is kinetic friction?
- Friction that occurs when there is relative motion between two surfaces.

F(f, max) = u(s)Fnormal

- What is static friction?
- The maximum force of static friction is the amount of force required to initiate motion in a resting object.

F(f) = u(k)Fnormal

- What is the force due to gravitiy acting parallel to an ojbect on an inclined plane?
- mg sin theta

- What is the normal force exerted by the inclined plane on an object?
- mg cos theta

- Describe an object's center of mass.
- The point at which all mass of an object is concentrated.

- Describe an object's center of gravity.
- The point at which the total gravitational force on a system can be considered to act.

- Define uniform circular motion.
- An object moving in a circular path with constant speed.

- What is the formula for centripetal acceleration?
- a(c) = v^2/r

- What is the formula for centripetal force?
- F(c) = ma(c)

- What is centripetal force?
- The force required to keep an object moving along a circular path.