Glossary of MCAT Biology Lecture 1

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water loving
formation of macromolecules via dehydration synthesis.
the 6 major types of lipids
fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, glycolipids, steroids, terpenes.
glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acids, phosphate group. Amphipathic and used to build membranes.
glycerol backbone connected to 3 fatty acids. Stores energy, provides thermal insulation and padding.
Type of lipid. Four ringed. Regulates metabolic activities.
Number of essential amino acids
tertiary structure
bending of peptide chain due to disulfide bonds, ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, vanderwalls forces, and hydrophobic interactions.
quaternary structure
two or more globular proteins binding together.
glucose polymer w/alpha linkages, found in plants
direction nucleotide sequences are written by convention
5' -> 3'
enzyme cofactors
enzymes need them to function, either minerals or coenzymes (incl vitamins)
water fearing
seperation of macromolecules (lysis, seperate)
biological molecule with low solubility in water.
containing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions.
fatty acids
chain of carbons with carboxylic acid end.
3 carbon backbone, in triglycerides.
Number of amino acids.
4 types of amino acid groups
nonpolar, polar, acidic, basic.
branced polymer of glucose with alpha linkages
glucose polymer w/beta linkages, found in plants. not digestable by animals.
composition of nucleotides
five carbon sugar, nitrogenous base, phosphate group.
reactant(s) that enzyme works on
saturation kinetics
dynamics of enzyme reaction speed... rate limited by enzyme concentation.
irreversible inhibitors
covalently bonds to enzyme, permenantly disables it
competitive inhibitors
take up active site but not permenantly. can be overcome by high conc of substrate
Noncompetitive inhibitors
bond to enzyme at nonactive site, change its shape to make it less effective. Cyanide is example.
zymogen or proenzyme
inactive enzyme form
allosteric interactions
modification of enzyme config resulting from binding of activator or inhibitor.
-ase suffix
denotes enzymes
breaks 6-carbon glucose into 2 3-carbon pyruvates, 2 molecules ATP and 2 NADH. occus in cytosol.
substrate level phosphorylation
formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate, using energy of a favorable reaction.
anaerobic respiration. starts with glycolysis, pyruvate reduced to ethanol or lactic acid, and NADH goes back to NAD+ to start glycolysis.
aerobic respiration
produces 36 ATP incl glycolysis. 1 NADH = 3ATP, 1FADH2 = 2ATP.
krebs cycle
pyruvate->acetyl CoA turns cycle 2x. Cycle produces 1ATP, 3NADH, 1FADH2.
Electron Transport Chain
Steps down NADH and FADH2, creates proton gradient that produces ATP. Oxygen is final electron acceptor.
oxidative phosphorylation
production of ATP via proton gradient and ATP synthase.

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