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Glossary of MCAT BIO 2

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Definition of Organelles
Parts of the cell
Name the Cell Theory
1. All living things are composed of cells
2. The cell is the basic functional unit of life
3. Cells arise only from pre-existing cells
4. Cells carry DNA that is passed from parent cell to daughter cell
Name the three methods to study cell structure
1. Magnification
2. Autoradiography
3. Centrifugation
Name the three different types of microsocpes
1. compound
2. electron
3. phase contrast
What does the diaphragm of a microscope do?
controls the amount of light passing through the specimen
What is Total Magnification?
TM=eyepiece times objective lenses
Which microscope allows the study of living cells
Phase contrast microscope
Define Autoradiography
Technique that utilizes radioactive molecules to trace and identify cell structures and biochemical activity.
Who has centrioles?
Animals do, plants do NOT
Distinguish btw cell wall and cell membrane
cell wall is protection while cell membrane regulates selective permiability
What does NOT have a cell wall?
Animals do not have cell walls
What is the DNA like in prokaryotes?
They have one circular DNA in the nucleiod region.
What is a plasmid?
smaller ring of DNA
What is Cytosol composed of?
1. free proteins
2. nutrients
What is different in Eukaryotes that you would attach to get rid of a disease?
1. Ribosomes
2. Cell wall
What is present on top of the proteins in the cell membrane?
carbohydrates
Is the hydrophilic phosphoric acid region polar and non-polar?
Polar
What is the cell membrane permeable to?
1. small nonpolar (oxygen)
2. small polar (water)
How do small charged molecules cross the cell membrane?
by protein channels
How do larger charged molecules pass the cell membrane?
by carrier proteins
Where does rRNA synthesis occur?
Nucleolus
What make up ribosomes?
1. rRNA
2. protein
What does the ER do?
transports materials through the cell
What does rough ER do?
protein synthesis
What does smooth ER do?
1. lipid synthesis
2. detox of poisons and drugs
What does the golgi apparatus produce?
secretory vesicles
Where are vacuoles mainly found?
In plants
Define autolysis
Committing suicide, repture lysosome membrane and release hydrolytic enzymes
What is a microbody?
a container for metabolic reactions
Is the mitochondria anerobic or aerobic?
aerobic, supplies energy
What are the two types of microbodies?
1. Peroxisomes
2. Glyoxysomes
Define Peroxisome
break fat down into fuel and used in liver to detoxify. They also require oxygen.
Define Glyoxysomes
They are found in the fat tissue of germinating seedlings and they convert fat to sugar
What does is mean that the mitochondria is semiautonomous?
makes its own DNA and ribosomes and thus can do binary fission for replication
What is the cell wall of a plant cell made of?
cellulose
What is the cell wall of a fungi made of?
chitin
What is the cell wall of animals made of?
TRICK: animals DONT have cell walls!!!!!!!
Define centriole
type of microtubule involved in spindle organization during cell division. NOT bound by membrane
What is the cytoskeleton composed of?
1. microtubules
2. microfilaments
3. intermediate filaments
Define microtubule
hollow rod made up of polymerized tubulins that radiate through the cell and provide support.
What are centrioles made of?
microbubules
Define Microfilaments
solid rods of actin, involved in cell movement as well as support.
What is the general way muscle contraction happens?
interaction of actin and myosin in the muscle cells
Define intermediate filaments
involved in maintenance of cytoskeletal integrity
Cells that require a lot of energy for locomotion have ltos of:
mitochondria
Cells involved in secretion have lots of:
Golgi bodies
Cells such as red blood cells (which main function is transport) have:
no organelles at all!!
What are the five ways substances can move into and out of cells?
1. simple diffusion
2. facilitated diffusion
3. active transport
4. endocytosis
5. exocytosis
What should you think of when you hear diffusion?
1. passive process
2. from high to low gradient
3. no energy needed
Define simple diffusion
net movement of dissolved particles down their concentration gradients from high to low.
What is an example of simple diffusion
osmosis
define hypertonic
when there is lower solute concentration inside of the cell
Define hypotonis
when there is higher solute concentration inside of the cell
Define isotonic
When the solute concentrations inside and outside the cell are equal and there is NO net flow of water in either direction
Define facilitated diffusion
the net movement of dissolved particles down their concentration gradient with the help of carrier molecules.
Define active transport
the net movement of dissolved particlse against their concentration gradient with the help of transport proteins. Requires energy!!
Define endocytosis
a process in which the cell membrane invaginates, foring a vesicle that contains extracellular medium
What are the who types of endocytosis?
1. Pinocytosis
2. Phagocytosis
Define Pinocytosis
the ingestion of fluids or small particles
Define Phagocytosis
the engulfing of large particles
Define exocytosis
a vesicle within the cell fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents to the outside.
STrong concept to remember about the cell membrane and endo/exocytosis
The material never actually crosses through the cell membrane
What are the four basic types of tissue?
1. epithelial
2. connective
3. nervous
4. muscle
Define Epithelial tissue
protects, absorbs, secretes and sensation
Define connective tissue
involved in body support
Define Nervous tissue
composed of neurons that are involved in perception, processing and storage of info. concerning the internal and external environments
Define muscle tissue
has great contractile capability and is involved in body movement
What are the three types of vertebrate muscle?
1. skeletal
2. cardiac
3. smooth
What are viruses composed of?
a nucleic acid enclosed by a protein coat
Define obligate intracellular parasite and give an example
means they can express their genes and reproduce only within a living host cell. Virus is an example
Define Bacteriophage
Viruses that exclusively infect bacteria. Nucleic acid is injected into cell, but protein coat stays outside.

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