Glossary of MCAT BIO 2
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- Definition of Organelles
- Parts of the cell
- Name the Cell Theory
- 1. All living things are composed of cells
2. The cell is the basic functional unit of life
3. Cells arise only from pre-existing cells
4. Cells carry DNA that is passed from parent cell to daughter cell
- Name the three methods to study cell structure
- 1. Magnification
- Name the three different types of microsocpes
- 1. compound
3. phase contrast
- What does the diaphragm of a microscope do?
- controls the amount of light passing through the specimen
- What is Total Magnification?
- TM=eyepiece times objective lenses
- Which microscope allows the study of living cells
- Phase contrast microscope
- Define Autoradiography
- Technique that utilizes radioactive molecules to trace and identify cell structures and biochemical activity.
- Who has centrioles?
- Animals do, plants do NOT
- Distinguish btw cell wall and cell membrane
- cell wall is protection while cell membrane regulates selective permiability
- What does NOT have a cell wall?
- Animals do not have cell walls
- What is the DNA like in prokaryotes?
- They have one circular DNA in the nucleiod region.
- What is a plasmid?
- smaller ring of DNA
- What is Cytosol composed of?
- 1. free proteins
- What is different in Eukaryotes that you would attach to get rid of a disease?
- 1. Ribosomes
2. Cell wall
- What is present on top of the proteins in the cell membrane?
- Is the hydrophilic phosphoric acid region polar and non-polar?
- What is the cell membrane permeable to?
- 1. small nonpolar (oxygen)
2. small polar (water)
- How do small charged molecules cross the cell membrane?
- by protein channels
- How do larger charged molecules pass the cell membrane?
- by carrier proteins
- Where does rRNA synthesis occur?
- What make up ribosomes?
- 1. rRNA
- What does the ER do?
- transports materials through the cell
- What does rough ER do?
- protein synthesis
- What does smooth ER do?
- 1. lipid synthesis
2. detox of poisons and drugs
- What does the golgi apparatus produce?
- secretory vesicles
- Where are vacuoles mainly found?
- In plants
- Define autolysis
- Committing suicide, repture lysosome membrane and release hydrolytic enzymes
- What is a microbody?
- a container for metabolic reactions
- Is the mitochondria anerobic or aerobic?
- aerobic, supplies energy
- What are the two types of microbodies?
- 1. Peroxisomes
- Define Peroxisome
- break fat down into fuel and used in liver to detoxify. They also require oxygen.
- Define Glyoxysomes
- They are found in the fat tissue of germinating seedlings and they convert fat to sugar
- What does is mean that the mitochondria is semiautonomous?
- makes its own DNA and ribosomes and thus can do binary fission for replication
- What is the cell wall of a plant cell made of?
- What is the cell wall of a fungi made of?
- What is the cell wall of animals made of?
- TRICK: animals DONT have cell walls!!!!!!!
- Define centriole
- type of microtubule involved in spindle organization during cell division. NOT bound by membrane
- What is the cytoskeleton composed of?
- 1. microtubules
3. intermediate filaments
- Define microtubule
- hollow rod made up of polymerized tubulins that radiate through the cell and provide support.
- What are centrioles made of?
- Define Microfilaments
- solid rods of actin, involved in cell movement as well as support.
- What is the general way muscle contraction happens?
- interaction of actin and myosin in the muscle cells
- Define intermediate filaments
- involved in maintenance of cytoskeletal integrity
- Cells that require a lot of energy for locomotion have ltos of:
- Cells involved in secretion have lots of:
- Golgi bodies
- Cells such as red blood cells (which main function is transport) have:
- no organelles at all!!
- What are the five ways substances can move into and out of cells?
- 1. simple diffusion
2. facilitated diffusion
3. active transport
- What should you think of when you hear diffusion?
- 1. passive process
2. from high to low gradient
3. no energy needed
- Define simple diffusion
- net movement of dissolved particles down their concentration gradients from high to low.
- What is an example of simple diffusion
- define hypertonic
- when there is lower solute concentration inside of the cell
- Define hypotonis
- when there is higher solute concentration inside of the cell
- Define isotonic
- When the solute concentrations inside and outside the cell are equal and there is NO net flow of water in either direction
- Define facilitated diffusion
- the net movement of dissolved particles down their concentration gradient with the help of carrier molecules.
- Define active transport
- the net movement of dissolved particlse against their concentration gradient with the help of transport proteins. Requires energy!!
- Define endocytosis
- a process in which the cell membrane invaginates, foring a vesicle that contains extracellular medium
- What are the who types of endocytosis?
- 1. Pinocytosis
- Define Pinocytosis
- the ingestion of fluids or small particles
- Define Phagocytosis
- the engulfing of large particles
- Define exocytosis
- a vesicle within the cell fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents to the outside.
- STrong concept to remember about the cell membrane and endo/exocytosis
- The material never actually crosses through the cell membrane
- What are the four basic types of tissue?
- 1. epithelial
- Define Epithelial tissue
- protects, absorbs, secretes and sensation
- Define connective tissue
- involved in body support
- Define Nervous tissue
- composed of neurons that are involved in perception, processing and storage of info. concerning the internal and external environments
- Define muscle tissue
- has great contractile capability and is involved in body movement
- What are the three types of vertebrate muscle?
- 1. skeletal
- What are viruses composed of?
- a nucleic acid enclosed by a protein coat
- Define obligate intracellular parasite and give an example
- means they can express their genes and reproduce only within a living host cell. Virus is an example
- Define Bacteriophage
- Viruses that exclusively infect bacteria. Nucleic acid is injected into cell, but protein coat stays outside.
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