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Glossary of Lower Leg and Foot Muscles

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Origin:
Gastrocnemius
Medial Head - upper posterior part of medial condyle of femur

Lateral Head - supracondylar line and lateral condyle of the femur
Insertion:
Gastrocnemius
Calcaneous via the Achilles tendon
Action:
Gastrocnemius
Plantar flexion of the ankle joint and assists in flexion of the knee joint
The tendon also known as the calcaneous tendon; tendon of the Gastrocnemius
Achilles Tendon
Trigger Points:
Gastrocnemius
In the belly of the muscle and near the points of origin of each head.
Referred Pain Pattern:
Gastrocnemius
Down the posterior leg to the heel and sole of the foot into the toes.
Synergists:
Gastrocnemius
- Soleus
- Plantaris
- Tibialis Posterior
- Peroneus Longus
- Peroneus Brevis
Antagonists:
Gastrocnemius
- Tibialis Anterior
- Extensor digitorum longus
- Peroneus Tertius
Origin:
Soleus
Upper one fourth of posterior surface of the fibula, soleal line, and upper shaft of tibia
Insertion:
Soleus
With the gastrocnemius, via the Achilles tendon to the calcaneous
Action:
Soleus
Plantar flexion of the ankle and stabilizes the leg over the foot
The soleus and gastrocnemius together are referred to as the _________.
Triceps Surae (calf muscles)
Referred Pain Pattern:
Soleus
Down the entire calf to the hell and sole of the foot into the toes.
Synergists:
Soleus
- Gastrocnemius
- plantaris tibialis posterior
- peroneus longus
- peroneus brevis
Antagonists:
Soleus
- Tibialis Anterior
- Extensor ditigorum longus
- Peroneus Tertius
Origin:
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Medial part of posterior surface of tibia
Insertion:
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Plantar surface of the bases of the distal phalanges of the second, third, fourth, and fifth toes
Action:
Flexor DIgitorum Longus
Flexes distal phalanges of lateral four toes, assists in plantar flexion of foot, inverts foot
Referred Pain Pattern:
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Down the posterior leg into the heel
Synergists:
Flexor Digitorum Longus
- tibialis posterior
- flexor hallucis longus
- flexor digitorum brevis
Antagonists:
Flexor Digitorum Longus
- Extensor Hallucis longus
- Extensor digitorum longus
- tibialis anterior
Origin:
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Lower two thirds of posterior surface of the fibula and the interosseous membrane
Insertion:
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Plantar aspect of the base of the distal phalanx of the big toe
Action:
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Flexion of the big toe, plantar flexion of the ankle joint, and inversion of the foot
This muscle is important in pushing off the surface in walking, running, and jumping.
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Referred Pain Pattern:
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Down the posterior leg to the hell and the sole of the foot.
Synergist:
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Flexor Hallucis Brevis
Antagonist:
Flexor Hallucis Brevis
Extensor Hallucis Longus
Origin:
Tibialis Posterior
Lateral part of posterior surface of tibia, interosseous membrane and proximal half of posterior surface of fibula
Insertion:
Tibialis Posterior
Tuberosity of navicular bone, cuboid, cuneiforms, second, third, and fourth metatarsals and calcaneus
Action:
Tibialis Posterior
Plantar flexion and inversion of the foot
Referred Pain Pattern:
Tibialis Posterior
In the knee and down the posterior leg
Synergists:
Tibialis Posterior
- Flexor Hallucis Longus
- Flexor Digitorum longus
Antagonists:
Tibialis Posterior
- extensor hallucis longus
- extensor digitorum longus
- tibialis anterior

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