Glossary of Life Span Development Midterm

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At what time is the apgar test administered?
1 minute and 5 minutes after birth.
What can a baby do at one month of age?
Lift chin
Respond to loud noises
Follow familiar faces if 10" or 3' away
What is the percentage increase of SIDS in a smoking parent vs. in a non-smoking parent?
50% increase risk
e.g. if rist in non-smoking parent is 3%, than risk in smoking parent is 6%
How many hours per day does a 7-12 month old sleep?
11.5 to 12 hours
What diseases have been essentially erradicated?
How effective is the measles vaccine?
What along with heroin causes negative affects in pre-natal development?
marijuana, cocaine, barbituates, antibiotics, alcohol, smoking, malnutrition
What does heroin cause in developing babies?
sleep disturbances, seizures, respiratory problems, mimicks endorphans, CNS problems, prematurity, decreased seratonin levels, speeds up AA absorption (malnutrition=mother eats a lot of sugar as result of her addiction)
What does Albert Bandura call his theory that behavior causes environment and environment causes behavior?
Reciprocal determinism
At what age do children begin to show handedness?
2 years old
What can a 4 year old do art wise?
draw a person with 4 parts (usually doesn't draw arms)
What can a 5 year old do, in general?
Dress self, say name, address and phone number, copy a triangle and a square, and understand language

answer= all of the above
What activity has the highest correlation to learning?
What is the heart rate of a newborn?
125 bpm
What is syntax?
Rules that govern the acceptable arrangement of wordds in phrases and sentences.

Two word utterance: telegraphic speech (brief and to the point)

Three word utterance: use past tense and use rules of language intuitively
How many words are in the vocabulary of a 12-15 month old?
12 months- say one word, understand 100
14 months- listen and wait turn to speak
15 months- understand 'no' and 'more' and 'less'
What prompted Vygotsky to write about cognitive development? What did he say?
Sociocultural perspective: each culture provides tools for cognition (i.e. language, computers, number systems etc)

Cognitive development is a social process that is learned through the entire life.

internalization and the zone of proximal development
What is the Zone of Proximal Development?
also known as the Zone of Potential Development

The range between the developed ability that the child clearly shows and the latent capacities that the child may be able to show in the proper environment or in the future.
What is the process of absorbing information from a given social and environmental context, thus is social rather than biological called?
Define morphology.
The way sounds are combined to form words
What is a functional birth defect? Provide an example.
Organs or parts that are not working properly.

e.g. hemophelia, color blindness
What does L.A.D stand for?
Language Aquisition Devise: we are born with the ability to use language.
What did Albert Bandura call his theory?
Social Learning Theory aka Social Cognitive Theory
What were Carolyn Jacklyn and Eleanor Maccaby interested in?
Gender Differenciation
What was Maslow's view called?
Hierarchy of Needs
Define maturation.
The process of becoming mature
What device allows us to know what a baby is looking at?
paper with lines..have baby follow it
In the 1930's one of the psychologists was?
Answer= Arnold Gessel
Are cancer and pregnancy compatible? If so, how?
Cancer in the core of the body is not compatible, but cancer on proximal limbs, distal tumor that is radio insensitive and skin cancer are compatible with pregnancy
What is developing during the 8th week of pregnancy? What causes harm?
2-10 weeks: embrio develops eyes ears mouth nose liver heart arms legs fingers toes

Terrotagens (drugs that cause harm and can cause prematurity, LBW)
What is a structural birth defect? Give an example.
A physical defect.

e.g. missing limb, extra limb, dwarfism
How much alcohol is okay to have during pregnancy?
3oz of red wine
What do barbituates cause if taken during pregnancy?
Cleft palates and hair lip

e.g. 'downers' and anti-anxiety meds
What do antibiotics cause if taken during pregnancy?
Affect bone growth and teeth color
Define receptive vocabulary.
words that you can understand but not say
What can 2 and 3 year olds pronounce?
good at g, b, p, m, k, w, h, n, t and vowels

difficulty with l, r, f, s, sh, eh
What is Rousseau's basic view about children?
Children were born inheritantly good.
answer to #39
JB Watson
What is the first prenatal development period called?
Zygotic period
answer to #41
What does the amniotic sac do?
provides nutrients to fetus
What can 15 month olds understand?
'no' 'more' 'less'
define regression
go back to an earlier stage of development
What is the female phallic stage called?
electra complex
Define Latency
6-11 years
repression of phallic stage to relieve anxiety
e.g. cooties
what 3 things are determined at the moment of fertilization?
1. gender
2. hereditary components
3. chromosomes
What is the average birth weight and height?
19.5 inches
7.38 pounds
What about Freud's theory allowed him to make it?
Based theory on neurologic patients
What are the 2 subsystems of superego?
a. conscience
b. ego ideal
Define Parapraxis.
"freudian slips"
saying what you're thinking and not what you're meaning to say
What is the proper age to potty train?
20 months
answer to #71
trust vs mistrust
What did Erikson call each stage?
relates to vs- psychologican crises that need to be resolved
Which psychosocial crisis occurs during adolescence?
indentity vs identity diffusion/role confusion
what happens if smoking during pregnancy?
-retards growth of fetus
-chenages homeostasis
-periphseral artery disease
-o2 is decreased in baby
disrupts metabolism of vitamins (esp. vitamin c)
associative play
babinski reflex
a test done on babies to see what the big toe does when the sole of the foot is stimulated
characterized by the extension of the great toe and fanning out of other toes
formation of a myelin sheath around a nerve fiber
what can infants hear in decibles?
50-60 decibles
vision and descrimination
in 3 days can see 1/8" line
When do babies prefer certain voices?
What can a 6 month old baby do?
-sit on high chair and grasp hanging object
-purposely bring food to mouth
-pass block from one hand to the other
-get first tooth
Define concrete operations.
can internalize actions (do things in head that had visualized before)
According to Piaget, developmental process occurs through what?
Define sensorimotor stage.
-baby has inborn abilities/reflexes
-through senses you experience the world
-using inborn schemas, baby can distinguish between items and people
-start thumbsucking
-repeat actions they find soothing
-think in language instead of images
-object permanence
-'aha' idea: child combines skills
define schema
a mental structure that organizes the perceptual imput and connects it with the appropriate response
define accommodation
process that results in changing schemas to cope with certain situations
e.g. changing schemas themselves
answer to #59
conservation of liquid
what concept would define formal thought?
figurative speech- reason about contrary to fact propositions
-reason about the future realistically
-can construct ideas
-abstract thinking
-test hypothesis
-understand political satire
Define the id.
-provides immediate discharge of energy and tension
-'pleasure principle': satisfaction now
-avoid pain
-primary process
-close touch with baby needs,not governed by laws
-has to be controlled (and is controlled by ego)
Erikson expanded on Freud's theory by including what
1. personality continuously changing
Continuum of resolution from what to what
basic trust to basic mistrust
one positive one negative
moro reflex
normal reflex in infants
baby spreads arms and legs out and looks frightened
what work was piaget doing that led him to cognitive work?
administering IQ tests
What were pavlov's and skinner's theories called? how were they different?
theory of classical conditioning
discovered brain's ability to form conditional responses to formally neutral stimuli
operant conditioning
based on rewarding
wait for the response and then reward
response strength
measured by the number of trials it takes to extinguish the behavior in the absense of reinforcement

condition human behavior
science applied to child raising
when do we have the best vision
10 years
What is the age range that's best for learning a second language?
starts at 2
no more accent at 12
What are the phases of language development?
echolalic babbling
complex speech
answer to #89
breast cancer
answer to #90
code switching
part of the brain that houses language?
Broca's area
who was the first person with a developmental view of education?
eleanor maccoby?
Who influenced watson?
Pavlov and Locke
What is anticipatory control? Who is responsible for creating it?
albert bandura
humans do not only respond to stimuli, they choose how they respond
define holophrase
single word with multiple meanings
e.g. "mama" used to mean "cold" or "hungry"
What are the different types of play?
a. simple play- exploration and manipulation of play materials
b. symbolic play
c. cooperative/associative play
d. spontaneous play- play now!
What are the effects of TV?
-a good babysitter
-limits play
How does play help development?
encourages support, develops confidence, social skills and self-direction
What can 6mo do in terms of language?
make noises back at you
What causes stuttering?
Evidence for
-learning and environment
-emotional factors

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