Glossary of Life Span Development
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- Death anxiety is likely to be highest for a person who is
a. 30 years old
b. 45 years old
c. 65 years old
- Harlow's research suggests that, when placed in an unfamiliar situation, monkeys raised with surrogates will cling to:
a. the cloth surrogate mother
b. the wire mesh surrogate mother
c. the surrogate that provided the monkey food
- a. the cloth surrogate mother
- A five year old child, according to Kohlberg, is most likely to use which of the following standards to decide whether a behavior is right or wrong:
a. whether or not the bx will result in punishment
b. whether or not the bx pleases a parent or
- a. whether or not the bx will result in punishment
- c. Stranger anxiety usually begins at about:
a. three months
b. eight mos
- b. 8 mos
- Anaclitic depression is most likely to result when:
a. a child is placed in an orphanage at 6 mos of age
b. a child is physically abused during mid childhood
c. a fyo child's parents get divorced
- a. a child is placed in an orphanage at 6 mos of age
- Protest, dspair, and detachment would be expected to occur when:
a. a 65 yo woman finds out she has cancer and has only six mos to live
b. a middle aged man gets fired from the job he has worked at for 20 years
c. the parents of a 4yo chil
- C. the parents of a 4yo child go on a 6 mos vacation
- Children of working women are most likely to exhibit
a. higher levels of academic achievement
b. lower levels of self-esteem
c. more egalitatian sex-role beliefs
- c. more egal sex-role beliefs
- Generally speaking, the best conclusion that can be drawn about the effects of daycare is that daycare:
a. is associated with deficits in cognitive development
b. is associated with attachment difficulties
c. is not clearly associated with
- c. is not clearly assoc with any negative effects
- The custodial parent during the year following divorce is most likely to be
a. overpermissive adn non-punitive
b. overcontrolling and inconsistently punitive
c. overinvolved and overprotective
- b. overcontrolling and inconsistently punitive
- True/Falst: Boys tend to recover from the effects of divorce more slowly than girls
- True/False - Girls adjust better to a new stepfather than boys.
- True/False - In general, working women do not differ substantially from non-working women in terms of life satisfaction, stress, and depression.
- True/Falst - classes that are heterogeneous in terms of ability level are more beneficial for low-achieving students than homogenous classes
- During a "critical period":
a. a particular aspect of development is most sensitive to genetic influences
b. a particular aspect of development is most sensitive to environmental influences
c. an organism makes a transition to th
- b. a particular aspect of development is most sensitive to environmental influences
- When watching a conversation involving both men and women, you would most likely find that
a. the women talk for longer periods
b. the women ask more questions
c. the woman interrupt more often
d. all of the above
- b. the women ask more questions
- For Kohlberg, moral development:
a. varies from culture to culture
b. corresponds to parental expectations
d. reflects cognitive development
d. is determined by rewards and punishments
- c. reflects cognitive development
- Longtitudinal studies of high-risk infants suggest that positive outcomes for these infants are most associated with:
a. a high IQ
b. good social responsiveness
c. early language acquisition
d. high maternal warmth
- b. good social responsiveness
- In contrast to Freud, Erikson:
a. views the id's instincts as social rather than sexual in nature
b. views the id as less unconscious and more conscious
c. views the ego as more important than the id for personality development
- c. views the ego as more imp than the id for personality development
- When deciding how to teach children with diverse levels of achievement, it is important to keep in mind that
a. tracking is beneficial for students at all achievemnet levels
b. tracking is most beneficial for students at low achievemnet levels
- c. tracking is not beneficial for students at low achievement levels
- For Erikson, a two-year old child is facing which psychosocial crisis:
a. autonomy vs. shame and doubt
b. trust vs. mistrust
c. industry vs. interiority
d. initiative vs. guilt
- a. autonomy vs. shame and doubt
- For Erikson, a tyo child is facing which psychosicial crisis:
a. autonomy vs. shame and doubt
b. trust vs. mistrust
c. industry vs. interiority
d. initiative vs. guilt
- a. autonomy vs. shame and doubt
- As described by Piaget, conservation:
a. develos gradually during the properational stage of development
b. develops at the very end of the preoperational stage of development
c. develops gradually during the concrete operational stage of
- A parent should be most concerned if his
a. 7yo starts to stutter
b. 5yo is afraid of bad dreams
c. 3yo wets the bed occasionally
d. 2yo is afraid of other children
- a.stuttering is common for 2-3yolds considered abnormal if continues beyond the age of 5.
- A baby's fist words are most likely to include
- The best conclusion that can be drawn about the effects of Head Start and other compensatory education programs is that they have
a. long-term effects on social and communication skills only
b. long-term effects on achievement and attitudes tow
- b. long-term effects on achievement and attitudes toward school
- Pretend play, e.g., pretending a bottle is a microphone while singing, is best described in Piagentian terms as involving
c. object permanence
- a. assimilation
- Kohlberg would most likely say that a preschooler's moral judgments are based on
a. the rules
b. the consequences of the act
d. the rightness or wrongness of the act
d. peer pressure
- b. the consequences of the act
- The current status of the nature/nurture controversy is best reflected in which of the following statements:
a. experience and maturation are additive factors
b. experience interacts with maturation
c. maturation underlies experience
- b. experience interacts with maturation
- Joe is not color blind but his brother is, his wife Ellen is not color blind. In terms of Joe and Ellen's offspring you would expect that
a. their boys will probably be color bling
b. their girls will be color blind
c. 50% of their boys an
- d. their children will not be color blind
- Harlow's research with infant rhesus monkeys suggests that, for an infant to become attached to her primary caretaker, the infant needs:
a. a consistent feeding schedule
b. adequate stimulation
c. comfortable physical contact
d. a con
- c. comfortable physical contact
- Tyrone and Sida are 9yo identical twins. Their mother has worked since they were tyears old. In comparison to children whose mothers do not work outside the home, you would expect Tyrone and Sida to
b. be less securely attached
b. have higher l
- c. have fewer generrole stereotypes
- Piaget's theory of cognitive development proposes that the "symbolic capacity" begins at
a. the end of the sensorimotor stage
b. at the end of the preoperational stage
c. during teh concrete operational stage
d. during the p
- a. the end of the sensorimotor stage
- A child is most likely to have behavioral and psychological problems after the divorce of her parents if
a. she lives with her mother
b. her parents have joint custody
c. her parents often fight in front of her
d. her parents frequent
- c. her parents often fight in front of her
- Which of the following can be expected to be the last to occur in a child's development:
a. says "baby"
b. exhibits separation anxiety
c. enjoys parallel play
d. climbs stairs
- c. enjoys parallel play
- An infant's ability to acquire new skills and knowledge in the first year of life is due largely to an increase in
a. the number of neurons
b. hemispheric communication
c. myelina\ization adn dendritic growth
d. sensory perception
- c. myelinization and dendritic growth
- PKU is
a. due to the presence of a single dominant gene and is untreatable
b. due to the presence of two recessive genes adn is preventable with a special diet
c. the result of a sex chromosome anomaly and may be partly reversible with a
- B. due to the presence of two recessive genes and is preventable with a special diet. I causes mental retardation unless the child is meeediately put on a special diet
- In humans, the least developed part of the brain at birth is the
a. limbic system
b. extrapyramidal motor system
- a. cortex
- Phenotype refers to
a. genetically-determined characteristics
b. environmentally-determined characteristics
c. observable and measurable characteristics
- c. observable and measurable characteristics - often reflect a combination of genetic and environmental influences
- a BABY PICKS UP A SPOON FOR THE FIRST TIME AND SAYS "RATTLE." fROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF pIAGET'S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, THIS REPRESENTS
- a. assimilation - the baby incorporates info from the environment into an existing cognitive schema (his knowledge of the similar properties of a rattle).
- Which of the following occurs in Piaget's concrete operational stage of cognitive development?
a. reversiaility and decentration develop, leading to conservation at the beginning of the stage
b. reversiaility and decentration develop, leading t
- c. reversibility and decentration develop, leading to the development of conservation skills in an invariant sequence
- As defined by Vygotsky, the zone of proximal development
a. refers to the people and resources in the learner's immed environment
b. refers to the child's biologically-determined range of reaction
c. is the gap between what a child can co
- d. is the gap between what a child can currently do alone and what she can do with assistance
- Which of the following statements is most true of a baby's crying?
a. A newborn baby's crying represents all major human emotions
b. Soon after birth, it is possible to distinguish between a hunger cry, a pain cry, and an angry cry
- b. soon after birth, it is poss to distinguish between a hunger cry, a pain cry, and an angry cry
- At five or six months of age, the babbling of most children
a. includes sounds of all languages
b. is restricted to the sounds of the child's native language
c. includes vowel sounds only
d. is used to communicate contentment and dist
- a. includes sounds of all languages
- Children begin to use rehearsal and other memory strategies in a consistent way at about age
- b. 7 - from early to middle childhood the child's memory substantially improves. This is apparently due to several factors including the more consistent use of memory strategies.
- In many cases, the relationship between stepfathers and their childen is best described as
- a. disengaged
- A 75yo man is likely to perform most poorly on which of the following Wechsler subtests?
b. digit span
d. digit symbol
- d. digit symbol - performance
- Which of the following aspects of memory shows the most decline with age?
a. sensory memory
b. primary memory
c. secondary memory
d. implicit memory
- c. secondary memory - recent long-term memory
- Which of the following variables is the best predictor of continued sexual activity in old age?
a. past sexual activity
b. marital status
c. financial resources
d. attitudes toward sexuality
- a. past sexual activity
- Anxiety about death is greatest among individuals aged
a. 20 to 30
b. 30 to 40
c. 40 to 50
d. 50 to 60
- c. 40 to 50
- A 14yo is in a car accident and, as a result, has a noticeable scar on his forehea. He feels that everyone is staring at him because of the scar. This is an example of
a. identity moratorium
b. adolescent centration
c. personal fable
- d. imaginary audience
- Regarding the effects of maternal emotional stress during pregnancy, which of the following statements is most correct?
a. maternal emotional stress is not assoc with any neg consequences for the newborn child
b. severe emot stress invariable p
- c. seere emot stress may result ....
- A child says that when it rains, the clouds are crying. This logic is typical of the
a. preoperational stage
b. concrete operational stage
c. sensorimotor stage
d. formal operational stage
- a. preoperational stage - the child is displaying animism, or the tendency to attribute human characteristics to inanimate objects. Animism is a characteristic of the preoperational stage, which occurs between the ages of 2 and 7.
- Patterson and his colleagues would recommend which of the following as an intervention for highly aggressive children?
a. group therapy for the child
b. individual therapy for the child
c. parent training
d. cognitive family therapy
- c. parent training
- A school psychologist is interested in studying the interrelationships between a child's home and school environments. From the perspective of Bronfenbrenner's econological model, the psychologist is interested in the
- a. mesosystem - refers to the interconnections between diff aspects of the microsystem (e.g., the connection between the family and the school).
- Most infants egin to exhibit stranger anxiety at
a. 4 to 5 mos
b. 6 to 7 mos
c. 8 to 9 mos
d. 10 to 11 mos
- c. 8 to 9 mos
- According to Erikson, adolescents experience which of the following developmental conflicts?
a. intimacy vs. isolation
b. industry vs. inferiority
c. identity vs. identity diffusion
d. integrity vs. despair
- c. identity vs. identity diffusion
- An 18month old who has been abused by her parents is most likely to exhibit which of the following attachment patterns when in the "strange situation"?
- a. disorganized
- Which of the following best describes the cognitive development theories of Piaget and Vygotsky?
a. Piaget viewes cognitive development as involving universal invariant stages, while Vygotsky views it as varying, depending on the social and cultural
- a. Piaget views cog develop as involving universal invariant stages, while Vygotsky views it as varying, depending on the social and cultural context
- A child doesn't steal because she doesn't want people to dislike her. This child is in which stage according to Kohlberg?
- b. conventional
- Which of the following is true about the symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome?
a. cog symptoms are largely reversible...
b. cognitive and physical symptoms are largely reversible as long as
c. cognitive symptoms are largely irrevesible but s
- d. cognitive, behavioral, and physical symptoms are largely irreversible
- Which of the following statements regarding adolescents with diabeter mellitus is most true?
a. due to more advanced cog skills, adolescents are more likey to adhere to their tx regimens than younger children
b. due to greater emot acceptance o
- c. due a variety of factors, adolescents with diabetes are less likely to adhere to their tx regimens than they did when they were younger
- Which of the following statements is most true regarding the results of research investiating the correlates of maternal employment in two parent households?
a. children of employed mothers have less rigid gender role stereotypes
b. sons of emp
- a. children of employed mothers have less rigid gender role stereotypes
- When playing a game with a child in Piaget's autonomous stage, you suggest that some of the rules be changed. The child is most likely to respond
a. I don't want to play anymore because you're cheating.
b. they're the rules and they can't be ch
- d. i agree, so let's change the rules
- As people age, they are most likely to exhibit decrements in
a. primary memory
b. secondary memory
c. implicit memory
d. remote long-term memory
- b. secondary memory
- The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales would most likely be administered in conjunction with a(n)
a. achievement test
b. sptitude test
c. intelligence test
d. group intelligence test
- c. intelligence test - the Vineland is a test of adaptive vunctioning.... has diagnostic criteria for mental retardation
- An information source that is published on a regular basis and contains critical reviews of test is
a. Tests in Print
b. Mental Measurements Yearbook
c. APA's Standards for Educational and Psyhcological Testing
d. the Weekly World New
- b. Mental Measurements Yearbook
- Which of the following subtests of the jWAIS would be used to assess judgment and common sense?
b. pict completion
- d. comprehension
- The curr accepted distinction between aptitude tests and achievement test is that
a. achievement tests are tests of memor, whereas aptitude tests are meas of prob solving ability
b. achievement tests attempt to assess potential capacity for lea
- c. aptitude tests attempt to assess potential capacity for learning, whereas achievement tests asses developed capacity
- An advantage of a deviation IQ over a ratio IQ is that the former
a. permits comparison of examinees across age groups
b. involves calculation of the examinee's mental age
c. allows for better predictions about future outcome to be made
- a. permits comparison of examinees across age groups
- Fetal alcohol effects:
a. are less severe than the symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome and are largely reversible with adequate nutrition following birth.
b. are less severe than the symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome but are also largely irreve
- b. are less severe than the symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome but are also largely irreversible
- Severe malnutrition during prenatal development:
a. has little impact on the developing brain
b. can result in fewer neurons and connections between neurons
c. produces malformed cells, especially in the nervous system
d. is reversibl
- b. can result in fewer neurons and connections between neurons
- Piaget proposed that children begin to lie deliberately at about ___ of age:
a. three years
b. five years
c. seven years
d. nine years
- c. seven years - concrete operational stage (consistently)
- For Vygotsky, the zone of proximal development represents the difference between:
a. what a child can accomplish alone and what she can accomplish with help
b. the child's comprehension and production of language
c. the individual's curr s
- a. what a child can accomplish alone and what she can accomplish with help
- Older adults generally do more poorly than younger adults on oaboratory tasks assessing secondary memory. This is due primarily to:
a. ineffective encoding strategies
b. deficits in selective attention
c. declines in storage capacity
- a. ineffective encoding strategies - secondary (recent long-term memory)
- According to Chomsky, language is:
a. socially constructed
b., largely innate
c,. the result of reinforcement
d primarily imitative
- b. largely innate
- During a conversation with his teacher, a bilingual student exhibits "code switching." This indicates:
a. poor vocabulary acquisition in both languages
b. a lack of understanding of the grammatical ruls of the mainstream lang
- c. attempts to better express his attitude toward the teacher or what she is saying - code switching (shifting from one language to the other) among bilinguals and multilinguals serves several purposes including expressing one's attitude toward the listener and demonstrating solidarity with the minority culture
- A mother who may have to be separated from her baby for an extended period of time would be best advised to do so when the child is:
a. less than 6 months of age
b. between 7 and 12 mos of age
c. between 13 and 18 months of age
- a. less than 6 months of age - prior to 7 months infants exhibit indiscriminate attachment. After that time, their attachment behaviors are directed toward the primary caregivers and stranger and separation anxiety emerge. Consequently, a separation from the mother would probably have the least detrimental effects when it occurs during the first few months of life
- Young victims of child abuse are most likely to exhibit which of the following patterns of attachment:
- a. disorganized - Main, a student of Ainsworth, found that about 80% of abused children exhibit a disorganizeed attachment pattern in the strange situation.
- The "goodness of fit" model proposed by Thomas and Chess predicts that:
a. marital satisfaction is related to the complementarity of personality characteristics of the spouses
b. child maladjustment is related to incompatibility betwe
- b. child maladjustment is related to incompatibility between the child's temperament and the parents' caretaking behaviors - Thomas and Chess have writtene xtensively on infant temperment and have related maladjustment in chidlren to a lack of fit between the child's temperament and characteristics of the environment, especially the parents' behaviors
- Carol Gilligan suggests that a major task for teachers and parents of adolescent girls is to help them:
a. coordinate the often conflicting demands of parents and peers
b. plan for their future in the adult world
c. develop an internal loc
- d. staying connected to themselves and others - Gilligan argues that adolescent females experience a "relational crisis" that involves separation from themselves, others, and the world due to pressures to conform to sterotypes of femininity. A major task for parents and teachers is to help them resist disconnection
- An adolescent is very popular with her peers and gets good grades in school. Most likely her parents exhibit which of the following:
a. high control and high warmth and responsiveness
b. low control and high warmth and responsiveness
- a. high control and high warmth and responsiveness - authoritative parenting is assoc with good social and academic skills
- A school counselor attempts to discuss college and career plans with a high school senior. The student says "I've got that covered. My Dad's convinced me that I should do what he does. I'm going to be an electrician." This young man is in which
- c. foreclosure - when the individual is committed to an identity that has been recommended by a parent or other authrity rather than being the outcome of an identity crisis
- From the perspective of Kohlberg, progress through the stages of moral development is directly related to:
a. changes in cognitive abilities
b. changes in cognitive abilities and social perspective taking
c. changes in cognitive abilities
- b. changes in cognitive abilities and social perspective taking
- You decide to develop an intervention for highly aggressive children and their parents. If your intervention is heavily influenced by the work of Patterson and his colleagues, it will focus on which of the following?
a. providing children with asser
- c. improving parents' child management skills
- Recent research on the effects of divorce on children suggests that:
a. boys may show more stress initially, but the long term effects may be greater for girls
b. girls may show more stress initially, but the long term effects may be greater fo
- a. boys may show more stress initially, but the long term effects may be greater for girls - the sleeper effect for girls - often do not show negative effects until adolescence
- Which of the following best summarizes the research assessing the impact of having a lesbian mother on the psychological well being of children:
a. children of lesbian mothers are more likely to have psycho probs than children of hetero mothers
- d. children of lesbian mothers are no more likely to have psycho probs than children of heterosexual mothers - the nature of the parent-child relationship is more important than the mother's sexual orientation for determining the psychological adjustment of children
- Recent studies investigating teachers' responses to male and female students have demonstrated that:
a. boys have more interactions with their teachers and tend to receive more feedback
b. girls have more interactions with their teachers but re
- a. boys have more interactions with their teachers and tend to receive more feedback - especially attention that fosters better academic performance
- Height, weight, and intelligence are _____, while brown eyes, dark hair, and farsightedness are due to a ____.
- polygenic; single dominant gene
- The contribution of heredity to an observed characteristic can be expressed in terms of a ______ estimate, which indicates the extent to which phenotypes vary within groups as the result of differences in _____.
- heritability; genotype
- Prenatal development occurs in three stages: germinal, _____, and fetal.
- Birth defects are caused by a number of factors. PKU is due to the presence of a pair of _______,
- recessive genes
- while Down Syndrome is the result of an extra _____.
- number 21 chromosome
- Teratogens are substances that cross the ______ barrier and cause defects in the embryo or fetus.
- The critical period for terotogens varies from organ to organ but, overall, exposure during the _____ stage is most likely to cause major structural abnormalities.
- Alcohol consumption by a pregnant woman can cause _______,
- fetal alcohol syndrome
- while _____- use increases the risk for stillbirth, SIDS, seizures, low birthweight, an exaggerated startle response, and developmental delays.
- When a prenant woman is infected with _____- during teh first trimester, the infant is at high risk for heart defects, blindness, deafness, and mental retardation.
- Malnutrition is associated with a number of abnormalities, with severe ____ deficiency being especially detrimental for the developing brain.
- _____ during teh birth process can result in delays in motor development, mental retardation, or cerebral palsy.
- An infant is considered premature when it is born prior to _____ weeks and _______ when its weight is below the tenth percentile for its gestational age.
- 37; small-for-gestational age
- Research investigating the impact of early stress on development suggests that high-risk babies are less likely to have negative outcomes when the babies experience fewer _____ following birth and have an easy termperament marked by a high degree of ____
- stressors; social responsivity
- By about _____ of age, an infant's visual acuity is probably close to that of normal adults.
- 6 months
- In terms of hearing, newborns are only slightly less sensitive to _____ than adults, and auditory _____ is evident following birth but seems to disappear between two and four months and then improves during the rest of the first year.
- sound intensity; localization
- Newborns are able to distinguish between different tastes and odors and within _____ can differentiate between sweet and nonsweet tastes.
- hours after birth
- Reflexes present in the newborn include the _____ reflex, which occurs when the soles of the feet are tickled,
- and the ____ reflex, which occurs in response to a loud noise or the sudden loss of physical support.
- At birth, the brain is only about 25% of its adult weight but, following birth, it grows quickly and by age 2 it has reached _____ of its adult weight.
- This growth is due less to the addition of new ____ than to an increase in their size and interconnections and the formation of ____ cells.
- neurons; glial
- While the lower centers of the brain are sufficiently developed at birth to control the life-maintaining reflexes, the _____ is almost completely undeveloped.
- cerebral cortex
- At about age 30, the brain starts to shrink as the result of a loss of ____.
- By ______, about 50% of children use the toilet during the day:
- 2 years
- by _____ , most children exhibit a stable preference for the right or left hand.
- 4 years
- Beginning in adolescence, the disparity between boys and girls widens in terms of _____ skills.
- The growth spurt for girls usu begins by about ______ and for boys at _____.
- 11-12; 13 to 14
- One of the best predictors of successful adjustment to a chronic illness is ______ (especially the level of functional impairment).
- illness severity
- The baby of a mother who experiences chronic emotional stress during the pregnancy is most likely to be:
a. mentally retarded
b. hyperactive and irritable
c. listless and unresponsive
- b. hyperactive and irritable
- Which of the following is least well-developed at birth:
a. cerebral cortex
- a. cerebral cortex
- A high-risk baby is lease likely to suffer long-term negative consequences if:
a. he has a higher than average IQ
b. he is socially responsive
c. his mother doesn't work outside the home
- b. he is socially responsive
- Exposure to teratogens is most likely to result in major structural abnormalities when it occurs:
a. in the first 14 days after conception
b. from the third through the eighth week of development
c. during the second trimester
- b. from the third through the eighth week of development/embryonic (3-8)
- The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome:
a. are largely reversible after birth with proper nutrition
b. are not usu evidenct until the child starts school
c. depend on the amount of alcohol consumed by the pregnant woman
- c. depend on the amount of alcohol consumed by the pregnant woman
- Auditory localization:
a. is fully developed within the first weeks of life
b. develops during the first year of life
c. does not fully develop until mid-childhood
- b. develops during the first year of life
- True/False PKU is due to the presence of a single dominant gene
- True/False Current research suggests that exposure to cocaine during pregnancy may have adverse cognitive and behavioral effects at least into the early school years.
- Severe _____ deficiency during prenatal development can lead to neuronal abnormalities and reduced brain size.
- In response to being dropped, a newborn will exhibit the _____ reflex.
- With regard to toilet training, about 50% of children remain dry during the day by the age of ____.
- 2 years
- Preference for the right or left hand doesn't usu become stable until about ____ of age.
- 4 years
- According to Piaget, adaptation reflects two complementary processes: ______ involves incorporating new information into existing schemas
- ______ entails modifying existing schemas to incorporate new information.
- Piaget distinguished between four stage of development that occur in an invariant sequence: During the ______ stage, thought is based on action.
- A major accomplishment of this atage is the development of ______ permancnce.
- The preoperational stage begins with the emergence of the ________ (representational thought), which enables a child to use a symbol, object, gesture, or word to stand for something.
- semiotic function
- children in the ______ stage are capable of mental operations such as reversibility and decentration, which underlie the ability to _____.
- concrete operational ; conserve
- Finally, the _____ stage is characterized by the ability to think abstractly, relativistically, and hypothetically.
- formal operational
- The information processing approach also views cognitive development as a function of both ______ and experience but focuses more on specific cognitive processes and views cognitive ability as ____ specific.
- maturation; task
- Vygotsky's theory emphasizes the importance of the zone of _______
- proximal development
- while Bronfenbrenner's econological systems theory describes cognitive development as involving interactions at four levels: microsystem, ______, exocystem, and macrosystem.
- Research comparing the memory of children and adults suggests that, until about age _____, children do not regularly use rehearsal, elaboration, and other memory strategies.
- 9 or 10
- Improvements on cognitive tasks that occur as children get older seem to be due, in part, to improvements in ______ (thinking about thinking).
- The nativist approach attributes language to ______ mechanisms and considers the _____ period for language acquisition to be sometime between infancy and puberty.
- biological; critical
- In contrast, the ______ approach views language development as due to a combination of ____ factors.
- interactionist; biological and environmental
- Language is often described in terms of five dimensions: _______ are the smallest units of sound in language,
- _____ are the smallest combinations of sounds that have meaning.
- ______ refers to the rules of grammer that specifiy how words are to be combined to form sentences.
- ______- are the rules for selecting words and phrases to achieve the intended meaning.
- Finally ______ specify how language is to be used in different social contexts.
- Children in different cultures pass through similar stages of language development: Infants initially produce three distinct patterns of crying: a hunger cry, an angry cry, and a _____ cry.
- By four months, infants begin babbling, which involves the repetition of single ______ sounds.
- At about 9 mos, children exhibit _____-, or the imitation of adults speech sounds and words without an understanding of their meaning.
- From one to two years of age, children use one or two words to express whole phrases or sentences. This ______ speech is then followed by telegraphic speech, which involves stringing two or more words together to make a ______.
- holophrastic; sentence
- The fastest rate of vocabulary growth occurs between ______ months.
- 30 and 36
- Research has identified several consistent gender differences in language use: In conversations, males talk for longer periods and are more likely to ______,
- while females are more likely to _____.
- ask questions
- More recent studies on the effects of biloingual children do _____ monolingual children on measures of cognitive and language development.
- as well or even better than
- When talking a walk on a moonlit night, a child says to her father, "Look the moon is following me." This is characteristic of Piaget's ______ stage of development.
- As defined by Piaget, when a child modifies his behavior to conform to the demands of the environment, the child is displaying
- Initially, a child doesn't search for a toy when it is hidden from view but, by the end of the _______ stage of development, she not only finds toys that are hidden while she watches but also searches for toys she didn't see being hidden.
- This is attributable to the development of -____.
- object permanance
- The ability to conserve depends on the operations of _____ and ______.
- reversibility and decentration
- Annie points to teh door after her father leaves for work and says "He go." This is an example of _____ speech.
- Annie is probably _____ months old.
- Children under the age of 9 often have trouble with memory tasks because of:
a. their limited attention span
b. their inconcsistent use of rehearsal and other memory strategies
c. their lack of understanding of the demands of the task
- b. their inconsistent use of rehearsal and other memory strategies
- A person exhibiting difficulties related to semantics would have trouble:
a. pronouncing words
b. combining words into meaningful sentences
c. taking turns during conversations
- b. combining words into meaningful sentences
- True/False Babbling initially includes phenemes from all languages.
- True/False overall, language-minotiry children who participate in bilingual programs do not do as well on measures of academic English as those who participate in English-only programs.
- True/False An intellectually gifted child is likely to exhibit more advanced metacognition than a non-gifted peer.
- Harlow's research with rhesus monkeys suggests that ______ comfort is more important for attachment than oral gratification.
- Research by ithologists suggests that there is a _____ period for attachment and other developmental phenomena.
- Bowlby suggests that the attachment behaviors of human infants become increasingly directed toward the primary caregiver at about _____ of age.
- six to seven months
- At about 6 months, babies exhibit stranger anxiety which is followed, at 7 or 8 months, by ______ anxiety.
- In the strange situation, a _____ attached youngster is upset by his mother's absence and actively seeks her comfort when she returns.
- In contrast, an _____ child shows little distress when her mother leaves and may ignore her when she returns.
- About 80% of infants who have been mistreated by their caretaker exhibit _____ attachment.
- Prolonged separation from a caregiver is least likely to have a negative effect on teh infant when the infant is _____ of age.
- less than three months
- Early institutionalizion may lead to a condition known as _______ depression.
- Prolonged separation from a caregiver may entail three stages: an initial protest stage, a _____ stage, and finally a _______.
- despair; detachment
- Basic temperament seems to be strongly affected by _____ and is, to some degree, apparent at birth.
- According to Thomas and Chess, children can be classified on the basis of basic temperament as either easy, difficult, or _____.
- slow to warm up
- During each of Freud's five psychosexual stages of development, the ____ is centered in a different part of the body.
- During the _____ stage, weaning is the primary source of conflict.
- This is followed by the analy stage and then the _____ stage.
- the primary task during the latter is to resolve the ______ conflict.
- During the fourth stage, the _____ stage, libidinal energy is diffuse but, in the final genital stage, it is again focused in teh genitals.
- Erikson's theory of psychosocial development posits eight stages of development that encompass the lifespan. The first stage (infancy) involves a conflict between ______,
- basic trust vs. mistrust
- while the second stage (toddlerhood) is characterized by a crisis involving ______.
- autonomy vs. shame/doubt
- According to Erikson, the primary crisis of adolescence is a conflict between ______.
- identity vs. role confusion
- Finally in the last stage of life, adults face a conflict between ______.
- integrity and despair
- Levinson's developmental theory (seasons of a man's life) emphasizes the _____ from one period to the next.
- In midlife there is a deflation of _____ and a shirt in perspective from time since birth to ______.
- The Dream; time left to live
- Baumrind distinguishes between four parenting styles: Authoritarian parents exhibit a high degree of control and little ______.
- Their children are often irritable and aggressive and have low self-esteem and low _____.
- academic achievement
- _____ parents combine rational control with warmth and encouragement of independence.
- Children of these parents are assertive, self-confident, and _____-oriented and obtain high grades in school.
- _____ parents are warm and caring but provide little control,
- while _____ parents exhibit low levels of both warmth and control.
- The use of power assertion is most characteristic of _______,
- while _____ is associated with authoritative parenting.
- In terms of family composition _____ acquire language more rapidly, achieve higher grades in school, and are more socially responsible.
- REcent research on aggression suggests that boys are, in fact, more overtly aggressive, but girls tend to rely on _____ aggression to control others.
- Most children do not understand that death is universal and irreversible and reflects a biological process until about age ______.
- Anxiety about death is generally greatest at _____.
- According to Kubler-Ross, people progress through five stages when facing their own death or other important loss; denial, anger, _____ depression, and acceptance.
- initiative vs. guilt?
- 3-6 years
- identity vs. role confusion?
- generativity vs. stagnation?
- middle adulthood
- integrity vs. desapir?
- late adulthood
- autonomy vs. shame?
- 12-36 mos
- intimacy vs. isolation?
- early adulthood
- trust vs. mistrust?
- 1-12 mos
- industry vs. inferiority?
- 6-12 years
- A shift in perspective from time since birth to time left to die typically occurs between the ages of:
a. 30 and 35
b. 40 and 45
c. 50 and 55
- b. 40 and 45
- A 7yo is irritable, aggressive, dependent, and low in achievment orientation and self-esteem. Based on this info, you would guess his parents are:
- a. authoritarian
- For Freud, obsessive-compulsive behavior is due to fixation at the ____ stage of development.
- When separated from their primary caretaker, insecure/ambivalent babies become:
a. mildly upset
c. very distressed
- c. very distressed
- A prolonged separation from a primary caretaker is likely to have the least negative effect if it occurs when the baby is:
a. less than 3 mos
b. between 3 and 6 mos
c. after 9 mos
- a. less than 3 mos
- True/False: Excitability and inhibition are characteristics that are usu apparent, to some degree, soon after birth.
- True/False Induction, as a disciplinary technique, is assoc with authoriative parenting.
- True/False Anxiety about death continues to increase with increasing age throughout the lifespan.
- Freud's ____ stage corresponds to Erikson's industry versus inferiority stage of development.
- Recent research suggests that, while boys are more overtly aggressive than females, females are more likely to exhibit _____ aggression.
- Separation anxiety begins at about _____ mos of age.
- The time during which specific biological or environmental events must occur for development to proceed normally is referred to as a _____
- critical period
- According to Kubler-Ross, the first stage in reacting to one's impending death is ____.
- Gender-role development involves acquiring a gender ____ and adopting gender-role behaviors
- Social learning theory prpoposes that gender-role development is the result of ____ and differential reinforcement.
- observational learning
- According to Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental theory, gender-role development entails a predictable sequence of stages: gender identity, gender stability, and gender ____.
- The conflicts encountered during teh process of developing an ethnic/racial identity may be resolved through acculturation. Of the forms of acculturation, _____ has been found to produce better psychological adjustment and higher self-esteem.
- According to Erikson, the primary developmental task of adolescence is the achievement of a coherent ____.
- This may involve four stages: diffusion, foreclosure, _____, and achievement.
- Hall proclaimed adolescence to be a time of ________, but recent research suggests that the incidence of serious psychological disturbance during this period is no greater than that for younger children and adults.
- storm and stress
- The re-emergence of egocentrism during adolescence is manifested in two phenomena: the ____ and the personal fable.
- imaginary audience
- While young children often exhibit considerable sibling ___ in middle-childhood, sibling relationships are marked by a paradoxical combination of _____.
- rivalry; closeness and conflict
- Differences in the conceptualization of friends reflects three developmental stages: in the first stage (ages 4 to 7), friends are viewed as ______;
- from ages 8 through 10, trust and assistance become critical elements; and beginning at about age 11, _____ and loyalty are important factors.
- Research on adult friendships has led to development of the _____ hypothesis, which proposes that the subjective perception of social support helps alleviate loneliness and reduce effects of stress.
- Children who are ____ with their peers have a positive self-concept, are intelligent and attractive, and exhibit good social skills.
- Although early adolescence is marked by increased susceptibility to peer pressure, conformity to peers is most likely for _____ behaviors and behaviors that have no clear standard.
- TrueFalse Recent research confirms Hall's contention that adolescence is a period of storm and stress for most teens.
- True/False During middle childhood (ages 8-10), friends are viewed as sources of help and support.
- AS a form of acculturation, _____ involves identifying with and becoming involved in one's own minority culture and the culture of the dominant group.
- The adoption of an identity imposed by someone else without having experienced an identity crisis is referred to as identity ____.
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