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Glossary of Life-Span Development, chap 2

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theory
an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain and make preditions
hypotheses
specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy
psychoanalytic theory
describes deveopment as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion. Behavior is merely a surface characterand the symbolic workings of the mind have to be anayzed to understand behavior. Early exspirences with parents are emphasied
Erikson's theory
included eight stages of human development. Each stage consists of a unique development task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved
Piaget's theory
states that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development
assimilation
occurs when individuals incororate new information into their existing knowledge
accommodation
occures when individuals adjust to new information
Vygotsky's theory
a sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
information-processing theory
emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and straegize about it. central to this theory are the processes of memory and thinking
social cognitive theory
the view of psychologist who emphasize behavior, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development
ethology
stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is caharacterized by critical or sensitive periods
ecological theory
Bronfenbrenner's environmental system theory that focuses on five environmental system: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem
eclectic theoretical orientation
an orientation that does not follow any one theoretical approach, but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in it
descriptive research
has the purpose of obseving and recording behavior
laboratory
a controlled setting in which many of the complex factors of the "real world" are removed
naturalistic observation
obseving behavior in real-world settings
standardized test
a test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring. many allow a person's performance to be compared with the performance of other individuals
case study
an in-depth look at a single individual
life-history record
a record of information about a lifetime chronology of events and activities that often involve a combination of data records on education, work, family, and residence
correlational research
the goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics
experiment
a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant
cross-sectional approach
a research stradegy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time
longitudinal approach
a research stradegy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more
sequential approach
a combined cross-sectional, longitudinal design
cohort effects
effects due to a person's time of birth, era, or generation but not to actual age
ethnic gloss
using an ethnic label such as African American or Latino in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogeneous than it really is

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