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Glossary of Liberty Chemistry 1

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Chemistry
The study of matter
Matter
Physical material of the universe- anything that has a mass and occupies space
Elements
Cannot be decomposed into simpler substances
Atoms
The almost infinitesimally small building blocks of matter
Molecules
Two or more atoms are joined together in specific shapes
States of Matter
Gas, liquid, or solid
Liquid
Has a distinct volume independent of its container but has no specific shape
Gas
Has no fixed volume or shape
Solid
Has a definite shape and volume
Pure Substance
Matter that has distinct properties and a composition that doesn't vary from sample to sample.
Compounds
Substances composed of two or more elements ionically bonded
Mixtures
Combinations of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity
Law of Definite Composition
The observaion that the elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same
Solutions
Homogenous mixtures
Physical Properties
Properties that can be measured without changing the identity and composition of the substance.
Chemical Properties
Properties that describe the way a substance may change or react to form other substances. Atoms "rearrange" into new combinations in a chemical property or chemical change.
Intensive Properties
Propeties that do not depend on the amount of the sample being examined.
Extensive Properties
Properties of substances that depend on the quantity of the sample and include measurements of mass and volume.
Physical Changes
A change in which a substance changes its physical appearance, but not its composition.
Changes of State
Physical changes from different states (for example: liquid to solid)
Chemical Changes
Changes in which a substance is transformed into a chemically different substance. Involves the rearrangement of atoms into new combinations.
Metric System
The units of measurement used for scientific measurements.
Precision
A measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another
Accuracy
How closely individual measurements agree with the correct value
Conversion Factor
A fraction whose numerator and denominator are the same quantity expressed in different units
Scientific Method
A dynamic process used to answer questions about our physical world. Typical steps include: 1. problem 2. hypothesis 3. controlled experiment 4. analysis 5. conclusion 6. verification

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