Glossary of Lecture 3: Vitamin E, Aspirin, Omega-3s, homocysteine, and heart disease
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- Why did people think margarine was better than butter and why does professor Levitsky disagree?
- b/c healthy butter = sold at room temperature.
cis-unsat fats (in nature) Hs on same side of double bond
trans-unsat fats (solid at room temperature..margarine) BUUUT... it loses its property of unsat fats, so its really no better than butter.
- Why is Vitamin E good for Atherosclerosis?
- b/c LDL's bad when its oxidized (free radicals bad = associated w/ aging). Vitamin E can repair damage done by free radicals.
- Do Vitamin E supplements prevent atherosclerosis?
- we require about 17mg/day: if we're not getting enough vitamin E, higher risk fro atherosclerosis but eating more doesnt seem to be helpful.
- What are 3 good things Vitamin E does (and one bad lol)
- 1. improves immunity among aged
2. prevents alzheimer's (at high doses)
3. prevents prostate cancer
4. in animals, decreases testicular size
- So another way to prevent atherosclerosis is what? What are sources of Vitamin E (fat soluble so absorbed in micelle?
- maintain minimum intake of Vitamin E. almonds, corn, peanuts (rare to get Vitamin E deficiency)
- Why do inuits eat such fatty diets but have such low rates of heart disease?
- b/c get lots of omega-3 fatty acids (from fish)
and they expend LOTS of energy which raises HDL (brings LDLs back to liver).
- Which (omega 6, 3, or 9) is an essential fatty acid (dont make it)
- 6 & 3
- What do omega 3 fatty acids do in humans?
- 1. Dilate blood vessels
2. Inhibit clotting (this is why inuits are bleeders)
3. reduce inflammation (which in turn reduced blood pressure).
- What do omega-6s do?
- 1. constrict blood vessels
2. promote clotting
3. promote infection (isnt always bad b/c allows healing)
- What's a good source of omega-3 fatty acids?
- cold water fish: anchovies, bluefish, mackerl, salmon, trout, tuna
REMEMBER: effects observed w/ people eating fish (omega-3) NO EVIDENCE that taking omega-3 pills slows atherosclerosis so just EAT FISH
- Omega-6 and Omega-3 fatty acids both produce_______. What's a major source of omega-6 fatty acids?
corn (LOTS OF THIS IN US)
- So what are 2 more ways to reduce risk of atherosclerosis?
- 1) eat fish about 2 times a week
2) reduce consumption of corn oil
- What's another anticoagulant (but you need to worry about bleeding now). Name an oppositely functional product.
- aspirin (1/2 aspirin/day good)
BUT fibrin (perprothrombin-prothrombin (need vitamin K)-thrombin-fibrinogen-fibrin)VERY STICKY....CAUSES CLOTS (stored in inactive form of fibrinogen.
- How is alcohol good?
- raises HDL levels (1oz per day is good)
- Why else is exercise great?
- 1) decreased need for insulin b/c moving muscle increases sensitivity --> lover rate of buildup of atherosclerosis.
2) lowers bl pressure
3) decreases body fat
- What is involved with homocysteine urea disease?
- 1) high blood homocysteine
2) Rapid development of athersclerosis
3)Increased blood homocysteine good predictor of CHD.
- What does homocysteine do?
- 1) increase oxidation
2) promotes growth of foam cells
3)increased clotting factors
- What causes and increase in homocysteine levels? Relate this to another thing to do to decrease chances of getting atherosclerosis.
- deficiency in folic acid and/or B12, B6
so, minimum amount of B12, B6, and folic acid required.
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