Glossary of Lecture 3: Vitamin E, Aspirin, Omega-3s, homocysteine, and heart disease

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Why did people think margarine was better than butter and why does professor Levitsky disagree?
b/c healthy butter = sold at room temperature.

cis-unsat fats (in nature) Hs on same side of double bond

trans-unsat fats (solid at room temperature..margarine) BUUUT... it loses its property of unsat fats, so its really no better than butter.
Why is Vitamin E good for Atherosclerosis?
b/c LDL's bad when its oxidized (free radicals bad = associated w/ aging). Vitamin E can repair damage done by free radicals.
Do Vitamin E supplements prevent atherosclerosis?
we require about 17mg/day: if we're not getting enough vitamin E, higher risk fro atherosclerosis but eating more doesnt seem to be helpful.
What are 3 good things Vitamin E does (and one bad lol)
1. improves immunity among aged
2. prevents alzheimer's (at high doses)
3. prevents prostate cancer
4. in animals, decreases testicular size
So another way to prevent atherosclerosis is what? What are sources of Vitamin E (fat soluble so absorbed in micelle?
maintain minimum intake of Vitamin E. almonds, corn, peanuts (rare to get Vitamin E deficiency)
Why do inuits eat such fatty diets but have such low rates of heart disease?
b/c get lots of omega-3 fatty acids (from fish)
and they expend LOTS of energy which raises HDL (brings LDLs back to liver).
Which (omega 6, 3, or 9) is an essential fatty acid (dont make it)
6 & 3
What do omega 3 fatty acids do in humans?
1. Dilate blood vessels
2. Inhibit clotting (this is why inuits are bleeders)
3. reduce inflammation (which in turn reduced blood pressure).
What do omega-6s do?
1. constrict blood vessels
2. promote clotting
3. promote infection (isnt always bad b/c allows healing)
What's a good source of omega-3 fatty acids?
cold water fish: anchovies, bluefish, mackerl, salmon, trout, tuna
REMEMBER: effects observed w/ people eating fish (omega-3) NO EVIDENCE that taking omega-3 pills slows atherosclerosis so just EAT FISH
Omega-6 and Omega-3 fatty acids both produce_______. What's a major source of omega-6 fatty acids?
So what are 2 more ways to reduce risk of atherosclerosis?
1) eat fish about 2 times a week
2) reduce consumption of corn oil
What's another anticoagulant (but you need to worry about bleeding now). Name an oppositely functional product.
aspirin (1/2 aspirin/day good)
BUT fibrin (perprothrombin-prothrombin (need vitamin K)-thrombin-fibrinogen-fibrin)VERY STICKY....CAUSES CLOTS (stored in inactive form of fibrinogen.
How is alcohol good?
raises HDL levels (1oz per day is good)
Why else is exercise great?
1) decreased need for insulin b/c moving muscle increases sensitivity --> lover rate of buildup of atherosclerosis.
2) lowers bl pressure
3) decreases body fat
What is involved with homocysteine urea disease?
1) high blood homocysteine
2) Rapid development of athersclerosis
3)Increased blood homocysteine good predictor of CHD.
What does homocysteine do?
1) increase oxidation
2) promotes growth of foam cells
3)increased clotting factors
What causes and increase in homocysteine levels? Relate this to another thing to do to decrease chances of getting atherosclerosis.
deficiency in folic acid and/or B12, B6
so, minimum amount of B12, B6, and folic acid required.

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