Glossary of Law Quiz on Supreme Court Cases

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Marbury v Madison
-power of supreme court to rule on actions of executive and legislative branches of government
**judicial review**
McCulloch v Maryland
-affirms "implied powers" of Congress
*necessary and proper clause*
Fletcher v Peck
-first time supreme court ruled on constitutionality of state laws
Cohen v Virginia
-first time supreme court ruled on proceedings of a state court decision
Baker v Carr
-states must reapportion legislative districts upon a formula based on polulation and not territory
**one man one vote**
The Civil Rights Cases
-private groups and businesses could deny services to individuals because of their race
*The 14th amendment applied only to state governments
Plessy v Ferguson
-affirms constitutionality of segregation
**separate but equal**
Brown v Board of Ed.
-declares segregation unconstitutional
Heart of Atlanta Motel v U.S.
-declared that racial discrimination violated the civil rights guarantees in the 14th amendment
*due process* *equal protection* clauses
University of California v Bakke
-racial quotas could not be set for minority applicants if whites were denied the chance to compete
Bradwell v Illinois
-upheld decision to deny woman right to practice law because of her gender
Minor v Happersett
-overturned a law that gave women the right to vote
Roe v Wade
-affirms right of women to have an abortion
Reynolds v U.S.
-ruled that laws making bigamy illegal were constitutional
*state laws were superior to church beliefs and practices
Tinker v DesMoines
-public school did not have the right to stop students from wearing arm bands to protest the war
**freedom of expression**
New Jersy v T.L.O.
-public school officials have the right to expand searches in order to provide a safe environment
Hazelwood v Kuhlmeire
-affirms the right of a public school to stop the publication of material in a school based newspaper if it is believed to jeopardize the school's learning environment
Engel v Vitale
-state-sanctioned prayer in schools is unconstitutional
Wallace v Jaffree
-struck down a mandatory moment-of-silence statute
*establishment* clause
New Jersey v T.L.O.
-public school officials have the right to expand searches in order to provide a safe environment
Schenk v U.S.
-1st amendment guarantee of free speech is not absolute
Texas v Johnson
-flag burning is constitutional under 1st amendment freedom of speech
Miller v California
-establishes a formula for states to regulate obscene material
Roth v U.S.
-upheld constitutionality of laws against mailings that are obscene, lewd, filthy, and indecent
Bowers v Hardwick
-allowed the armed forces to exclude homosexuals, and allowed states to ban homosexual relations
Boy Scouts v Dale
-a private organization is allowed to exlude an individual because of sexual orientation
Griswold v Connecticut
*zone of privacy* allowed use of contraceptives by married couples
Mapp v Ohio
*exclusionary rule*
-evidence gained illegally cannot be used in a court of law
Gregg v Georgia
-the court upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty
En Re Gault
-minors do not have all the 14th amendment rights that adults do
Korematsu v U.S.
-sanctions the authority of the federal government to suspend civil liberties of citizens during times of a national emergency
Gideon v Wainright
-guarantees a defendant the right to an attorney
Miranda v Arizona
-police must read a citizen his constitutional rights when being arrested
New York Times v U.S.
"The Pentagon Papers"
-clear proof must be shown by federal government if it intends to issue a prior restraint
-a prior restraint cannot be used to stop publication of contraversial material
U.S. v Nixon
"The Watergate Tapes"
-the use of executive privilege must yield to the judiciary's need to enforce laws
Bush v Gore
-stopped the recount of votes in Florida, allowing Bush to win the presidency

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