Glossary of LI111: Ch.1 - Ch.7 Grammar
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- What are the 9 subject pronouns (incl. formal)and their meanings?
- io - I;
tu, Lei - you, and formal
lui,lei - he,she;
noi - we
voi, Loro - you, and formal
loro - they
- What is the conjugation of the verb essere?
- io sono
- The negative of a verb is formed by placing what word before the verb?
i.e. Non siamo a teatro
(we are not at the theater)
- In what situation are the formal subject pronouns Lei (singular) and Loro (formal)used?
- They are used among persons who are not well acquainted.
- What phrases are the equivalent of saying "there is" and "there are"?
- C'è (there is)
Ci sono (there are)
- Usually, nouns ending in -o are of what gender? What about nouns ending in -a?
- -o nouns are generally masculine. -a nouns are generally feminine.
- Nouns ending in -ore or in a consonant are generally of what gender?
- Nouns ending in -ione are generally of what gender?
- What are the plural endings corresponding to these singular noun endings?: -o, -a, -e
- -i, -e, -i (respectively
un libro --> due libri
una casa --> due case
un dottore --> due dottori
- What kind of nouns are invariable? hint: this is related to their endings.
- nouns ending in accented vowels
i.e. due caffè
nouns ending in a consonant
nouns that are abbreviated
i.e. due cinema(tografo)
- Nouns that end in -ca and -ga have which plural endings?
- Their endings are -che and -ghe, respectively.
i.e. un'amica --> due amiche
i.e. una riga --> due rige
- Most nouns ending in -io change to what ending?
i.e. un nogozio --> due negozi
i.e. un ufficio --> due uffici
- What are the indefinite articles for *singular* nouns preceded by: 1. a consonant? 2. a vowel? 3. "z"? 4. "s" + consonant? Give masculine and feminine case.
- 1. un libro, una casa
2. un amico, un'amica
3. uno zoo, una zebra
4. uno studente, una studentessa
- What are the definite articles for *masculine* nouns preceded by: 1. a consonant? 2. a vowel? 3. "z"? 4. "s" + consonant? Give the singular and plural case.
- 1. il libro, i libri
2. l'ospedale, gli ospedali
3. lo zero, gli zeri
4. lo stadio, gli stadi
- What are the definite articles for *feminine* nouns preceded by: 1. a consonant? 2. a vowel?
- 1. la casa, le case
2. l'autostrada, le autostrade
- Bravo and buono are both translated in English as "good"; however, which should be used when "good" means "talented"?
- Basso and corto are both translated as "short". Which refers to height, and which refers to the length of objects?
- Basso refers to someone's or something's height.
Corto refers to the length of objects.
- Castano refers only to the colors of what? What word is used to be mean "brown" for everything else?
- Eyes and hair.
- Most adjectives usually follow the noun they modify. But there are a few that usually precede the noun. List some of these exceptions.
- Bello, brutto, buono, bravo, cattivo, giovane, vecchio, grande, piccolo, stesso, nuovo, altro, caro*, vero, primo, ultimo.
- When an adjective precedes the noun, the form of the article depends on what?
- The form of the article depends on the first letter of the adjective.
- What is the placement of adjectives when they are modified by the adverbs molto, poco, abbastanza, un po'?
- All adjectives modified by adverbs follow the noun.
- When the adjective buono precedes a singular noun, it has the same endings as which indefinite article?
- The indefinite article, un. Note however, that buono in its plural forms has regular endings.
- An adjective must agree in gender and number with the noun it modifies. What are the endings for adjectives ending in -o?
- -o (singular, masculine)
-i (plural, masculine)
-a (singular, feminine)
-e (singular, feminine)
- An adjective must agree in gender and number with the noun it modifies. What are the endings for adjectives ending in -e?
- -e (singular, masc and fem)
-i (plural, masc and fem)
- Conjugate the verb avere (to have).
- io ho
- What are the endings of regular -are verbs conjugated in the present tense? Conjugate the verb, cantare (to sing).
- io cant-o
- There present tense in Italian is rendered in English in different ways (verb forms). What are they, for the phrase, "Io canto."?
- I sing. (present)
I am singing. (present progressive)
I do singing (present emphatic)
- The verbs ascoltare (to listen for), aspettare (to wait for), guardare (to look at), differ from their English equivalents by not being followed by what?
- A preposition.
i.e. Aspettiamo l'autobus.
i.e. Guardate le foto?
- Imparare (to learn), (in)cominciare (to begin), and insegnare (to teach) take what before an infinitive?
- A preposition.
i.e. Incomincio a parlare in italiano.
- Pensare takes a preposition before an infinitive depending on the meaning of the clause that follows. What are these two cases of pensare?
- Pensare a: means to "think about something or someone"
Pensare di: means to "think about doing something"
- To express purpose (in order to), Italian uses which preposition before an infinitive?
i.e. I study (in order) to learn.
- per + infinitive
i.e. Studio per imparare.
- What are the English translations of these simple prepositions?: di (d'), a, da, in, con, su, per, tra (fra)?
- di (d')- of; con- with; a- at, to, in; su- on, over, above; da- from, by; per- for, in order to; in- in; tra (fra)- between, among
- What preposition is used to express possession, and place of origin?
- di (d').
i.e. Il libro è di Antonio.
i.e. Lei è di Londra.
- What are contractions of the preposition "a" with the following definite articles?: il, lo, la, l', i, gli, le?
- al, allo, alla, all', ai, agli, alle. (respectively)
- What are contractions of the preposition "da" with the following definite articles?: il, lo, la, l', i, gli, le?
- dal, dallo, dalla, dall', dai, dagli, delle
- What are contractions of the preposition "di" with the following definite articles?: il, lo, la, l', i, gli, le?
- del, dello, della, dell', dei, degli, delle
- What are contractions of the preposition "in" with the following definite articles?: il, lo, la, l', i, gli, le?
- nel, nello, nella, nell', nei, negli, nelle
- What are contractions of the preposition "su" with the following definite articles?: il, lo, la, l', i, gli, le?
- sul, sullo, sulla, sull', sui, sugli, sulle
- What are definitions of the following adverbs often used as prepositions?: sopra, sotto, dentro, fuori, davanti (a), dietro, vicino (a), lontano(da)
- above, on (top of); under; in, inside; out, outside; in front (of), before; behind, after; near, beside, next to; far (from).
- Translate these Italian phrases: above, on (top of); under; in, inside; out, outside; in front (of), before; behind, after; near, beside, next to; far (from).
- sopra, sotto, dentro, fuori, davanti (a), dietro, vicino (a), lontano(da).
- Quale and che are interrogative adjectives. What does each indictiave?
- Quale means "which."
Che means "what kind."
note: che is also used in exclamations, meaning "what!" or "what a...!"
- What are the endings of regular -ere verbs conjugated the in present tense? Conjugate the verb scrivere (to write).
- io scrivo
- What are the endings of regular -ire verbs conjugated the in present tense? Conjugate the verb dormire (to write).
- io dorm-o
- The partitive is used to indicate a part of a whole or an undetermined quantity or number (or in English, "some"). What is the Italian equivalent of the adjective "some"?
- di + the definite article
- Alcuni, qualche, and un po' di are forms that translate as "some". "Un po' di" can be followed by a plural or singular noun, but what about the other two?
- Alcuni is always followed by a plural noun.
Qualche is always followed by a singular noun.
Exception: when the noun can be measured, but not counted.
- This interrogative adjective meaning "how much" or "how many" agrees in gender and number with the noun it modifies. What is it, and its forms?
Quanto, quanti, quanta, quante
- To express age, Italian uses what phrase form?
- avere + number + anni
i.e. Pietro ha diciannove anni.
- Count from 0 to 9 in Italian.
- zero, uno, due, tre, quattro, cinque, sei, sette, otto, nove.
- Count from 10 to 19 in Italian.
- dieci, undici, dodici, tredici, quattordici, quindici, sedici, diciassette, diciotto, diciannove.
- Count from 20 to 29 in Italian.
- venti, ventuno, ventidue, ventitre, ventiquattro, venticinque, ventisei, ventisette, ventotto, ventinove
- Translate the following numbers into their Italian prefixes: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100.
- dieci, venti, trenta, quaranta, cinquanta, sessanta, settanta, ottanta, novanta, cento
Note: these numbers drop the final 'o' before a noun.
- All numbers are invariable except two. What two numbers are variable, and what are their forms?
- Zero and uno.
Uno has the same forms as the indefinite article un.
- What is the Italian translation of thousand, million, billion?
- thousand: mille, mila
million: milione, milioni
billion: miliardo, miliardi
- What are the meanings of the following adjectives expressing quantity?: molto, tanto, troppo, poco
- molto: much, a lot of; many
tanto: much, so much; so many
troppo: too much; too many
poco: little; few
- What are the forms of the following adjectives expressing quantity?: molto, tanto, troppo, poco
- molto, molta, molti, molte
tanto, tanta, tanti, tante
troppo, troppa, troppi, troppe
poco, poca, pochi, poche
- What is the meaning of the invariable adjective ogni and as a rule, what does it always proceed?
- Ogni: each, every
It always precedes a singular noun.
- Give the meaning of tutto, and its forms. What follows it when it is used as an adjective?
- Tutto: the whole; all, every
tutto, tutta, tutti, tutte
The adjective tutto is followed by the definite article.
- Conjugate the irregular -are verb, andare(to go).
- io vado
- Conjugate the irregular -are verb, fare(to do; to make).
- io faccio
- Conjugate the irregular -are verb, andare(to give).
- io do
- Conjugate the irregular -are verb, stare (to stay; to feel).
- io sto
- What are the days of the week, in Italian?
- Domenica, lunedi, martedi, mercoledi, giovedi, venerdi, e sabato.
plural of domenica: domeniche
plural of sabato: sabati
- What is the expression for number + times a + expression of time
- article + expression of time.
i.e. due volte allanumber + volte + definite settimana
- Conjugate the irregular -ere verb, bere (to drink).
- io bevo
- Conjugate the irregular -ere verb, dovere (to have to, must; to owe).
- io devo
- Conjugate the irregular -ere verb, potere (can, may, to be able to).
- io posso
- Conjugate the irregular -ere verb, volere (to want)
- io voglio
- Conjugate the irregular -ere verb, sapere (to know [a fact]).
- io so
- Conjugate the regular -ere verb, conoscere (to know [be familiar with])
- io conosco
- Conjugate the possessive adjectives for the following possessors: io, tu, lui, noi, voi, loro.
- il mio, la mia, i miei, le mie
tuo, tua, tuoi, tue
suo, sua, suoi, sue
nostro, nostra, nostri, nostre
vostro, vostra, vostri, vostre
loro, loro, loro, loro
- Posessive adjectives are always proceded by the definite article and contract with it (i.e. dallo) except for what kind of nouns?
- Singular, unmodified nouns that refer to a relative.
- Conjugate the semi-irregular verb finire (to finish).
- io fini-sc-o
- Conjugate the irregular -ire verb, dire (to say, to tell).
- io dico
- Conjugate the irregular -ire verb, uscire (to go out).
- io esco
- Conjugate the irregular -ire verb, venire (to come).
- io vengo
- What are the 4 direct-object pronouns used in Italian?
- lo, la, li, e le
Note: the pronouns lo and la drop the final vowel before a word beginnin with a vowel
- The passato prossimo expresses three English tenses. What are they for this sentence:
- Past perfect: I have carried.
Past: I carried.
Emphatic: I did carry.
- What are the participio passato (past participle) endings corresponding to -are, -ere, and -ire verbs?
- -ato for -are verbs
-uto for -ere verbs
-ito for -ire verbs
- Give the participio passato for the following verbs: comprare, ricevere, e dormire
- The negative form of the passato prossimo is expressed by placing non in front of which verb?
- The auxiliary verb.
i.e. Non ho avuto tempo.
- The passato prossimo conjugated with the auxiliary verb avere must agree in ___ and ___ with the direct object pronouns they refer.
- They must agree in gender and number.
i.e. Comprato la rivista? Si, l'ho comprata.
- Intransitive verbs conjugated with this auxiliary verb must agree with the subject in gender and number. What is that verb?
- What two phrases can be used to ask what time it is?
- che ora è? o Che ore sono?
- What phrase form is used to answer the question "what time is it"?
- è + l'una/mezzogiorno/mezzanotte
sono le + number
- What words distinguish general times of day? i.e., afternoon, AM, PM, evening, etc.
- di mattina
- What is the Italian phrase for "At what time"? What is the phrase form for the response?
- A che ora?
Response: a + definite article + expression of time
- What are the three translations of time? Give examples.
- Non ho tempo.
Che ora è?
Tre volte al giorno.
- The preposition a is used before...?
- before the names of cities and small islands
before nouns such as casa, scuola, teatro, piedi, letto, and tavola
- The preposition in is used before...?
- before the names of continents, countries, states, regions, and large islands; before nouns such as classe, biblioteca, ufficio, chiesa, citta, montagna, viaggio, vacanza; nouns of transportation, such as treno, aereo, macchina, bicicletta, etc.
- The preposition da is used before...?
- before a person's name, title, or profession to refer to that person's home or workplace
before a disjunctive pronoun to represent a person's home or workplace
Note: da contracts with the definite article
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