cueFlash

Glossary of LI111: Ch.1 - Ch.7 Grammar

Start Studying! Add Cards ↓

What are the 9 subject pronouns (incl. formal)and their meanings?
io - I;
tu, Lei - you, and formal
lui,lei - he,she;
noi - we
voi, Loro - you, and formal
loro - they
What is the conjugation of the verb essere?
io sono
tu sei
lui è
noi siamo
voi siete
loro sono
The negative of a verb is formed by placing what word before the verb?
non

i.e. Non siamo a teatro
(we are not at the theater)
In what situation are the formal subject pronouns Lei (singular) and Loro (formal)used?
They are used among persons who are not well acquainted.
What phrases are the equivalent of saying "there is" and "there are"?
C'è (there is)
Ci sono (there are)
Usually, nouns ending in -o are of what gender? What about nouns ending in -a?
-o nouns are generally masculine. -a nouns are generally feminine.
Nouns ending in -ore or in a consonant are generally of what gender?
Masculine
Nouns ending in -ione are generally of what gender?
Feminine
What are the plural endings corresponding to these singular noun endings?: -o, -a, -e
-i, -e, -i (respectively

i.e.:
un libro --> due libri
una casa --> due case
un dottore --> due dottori
What kind of nouns are invariable? hint: this is related to their endings.
nouns ending in accented vowels
i.e. due caffè
nouns ending in a consonant
i.e.due film
nouns that are abbreviated
i.e. due cinema(tografo)
Nouns that end in -ca and -ga have which plural endings?
Their endings are -che and -ghe, respectively.
i.e. un'amica --> due amiche
i.e. una riga --> due rige
Most nouns ending in -io change to what ending?
-i.

i.e. un nogozio --> due negozi
i.e. un ufficio --> due uffici
What are the indefinite articles for *singular* nouns preceded by: 1. a consonant? 2. a vowel? 3. "z"? 4. "s" + consonant? Give masculine and feminine case.
1. un libro, una casa
2. un amico, un'amica
3. uno zoo, una zebra
4. uno studente, una studentessa
What are the definite articles for *masculine* nouns preceded by: 1. a consonant? 2. a vowel? 3. "z"? 4. "s" + consonant? Give the singular and plural case.
1. il libro, i libri
2. l'ospedale, gli ospedali
3. lo zero, gli zeri
4. lo stadio, gli stadi
What are the definite articles for *feminine* nouns preceded by: 1. a consonant? 2. a vowel?
1. la casa, le case
2. l'autostrada, le autostrade
Bravo and buono are both translated in English as "good"; however, which should be used when "good" means "talented"?
Bravo
Basso and corto are both translated as "short". Which refers to height, and which refers to the length of objects?
Basso refers to someone's or something's height.
Corto refers to the length of objects.
Castano refers only to the colors of what? What word is used to be mean "brown" for everything else?
Eyes and hair.
Marrone.
Most adjectives usually follow the noun they modify. But there are a few that usually precede the noun. List some of these exceptions.
Bello, brutto, buono, bravo, cattivo, giovane, vecchio, grande, piccolo, stesso, nuovo, altro, caro*, vero, primo, ultimo.
*meaning dear
When an adjective precedes the noun, the form of the article depends on what?
The form of the article depends on the first letter of the adjective.
What is the placement of adjectives when they are modified by the adverbs molto, poco, abbastanza, un po'?
All adjectives modified by adverbs follow the noun.
When the adjective buono precedes a singular noun, it has the same endings as which indefinite article?
The indefinite article, un. Note however, that buono in its plural forms has regular endings.
An adjective must agree in gender and number with the noun it modifies. What are the endings for adjectives ending in -o?
-o (singular, masculine)
-i (plural, masculine)
-a (singular, feminine)
-e (singular, feminine)
An adjective must agree in gender and number with the noun it modifies. What are the endings for adjectives ending in -e?
-e (singular, masc and fem)
-i (plural, masc and fem)
Conjugate the verb avere (to have).
io ho
tu hai
lui ha
noi abbiamo
voi avete
loro hanno
What are the endings of regular -are verbs conjugated in the present tense? Conjugate the verb, cantare (to sing).
io cant-o
tu cant-i
lui cant-a
noi cant-iamo
voi cant-ate
loro cant-ano
There present tense in Italian is rendered in English in different ways (verb forms). What are they, for the phrase, "Io canto."?
I sing. (present)
I am singing. (present progressive)
I do singing (present emphatic)
The verbs ascoltare (to listen for), aspettare (to wait for), guardare (to look at), differ from their English equivalents by not being followed by what?
A preposition.

i.e. Aspettiamo l'autobus.
i.e. Guardate le foto?
Imparare (to learn), (in)cominciare (to begin), and insegnare (to teach) take what before an infinitive?
A preposition.

i.e. Incomincio a parlare in italiano.
Pensare takes a preposition before an infinitive depending on the meaning of the clause that follows. What are these two cases of pensare?
Pensare a: means to "think about something or someone"

Pensare di: means to "think about doing something"
To express purpose (in order to), Italian uses which preposition before an infinitive?
i.e. I study (in order) to learn.
per + infinitive

i.e. Studio per imparare.
What are the English translations of these simple prepositions?: di (d'), a, da, in, con, su, per, tra (fra)?
di (d')- of; con- with; a- at, to, in; su- on, over, above; da- from, by; per- for, in order to; in- in; tra (fra)- between, among
What preposition is used to express possession, and place of origin?
di (d').
i.e. Il libro è di Antonio.
i.e. Lei è di Londra.
What are contractions of the preposition "a" with the following definite articles?: il, lo, la, l', i, gli, le?
al, allo, alla, all', ai, agli, alle. (respectively)
What are contractions of the preposition "da" with the following definite articles?: il, lo, la, l', i, gli, le?
dal, dallo, dalla, dall', dai, dagli, delle
What are contractions of the preposition "di" with the following definite articles?: il, lo, la, l', i, gli, le?
del, dello, della, dell', dei, degli, delle
What are contractions of the preposition "in" with the following definite articles?: il, lo, la, l', i, gli, le?
nel, nello, nella, nell', nei, negli, nelle
What are contractions of the preposition "su" with the following definite articles?: il, lo, la, l', i, gli, le?
sul, sullo, sulla, sull', sui, sugli, sulle
What are definitions of the following adverbs often used as prepositions?: sopra, sotto, dentro, fuori, davanti (a), dietro, vicino (a), lontano(da)
above, on (top of); under; in, inside; out, outside; in front (of), before; behind, after; near, beside, next to; far (from).
(respectively)
Translate these Italian phrases: above, on (top of); under; in, inside; out, outside; in front (of), before; behind, after; near, beside, next to; far (from).
sopra, sotto, dentro, fuori, davanti (a), dietro, vicino (a), lontano(da).
(respectively.)
Quale and che are interrogative adjectives. What does each indictiave?
Quale means "which."
Che means "what kind."

note: che is also used in exclamations, meaning "what!" or "what a...!"
What are the endings of regular -ere verbs conjugated the in present tense? Conjugate the verb scrivere (to write).
io scrivo
tu scriv-i
lui scriv-e
noi scriv-iamo
voi scriv-ete
loro scriv-ono
What are the endings of regular -ire verbs conjugated the in present tense? Conjugate the verb dormire (to write).
io dorm-o
tu dorm-i
lui dorm-e
noi dorm-iamo
voi dorm-ite
loro dorm-ono
The partitive is used to indicate a part of a whole or an undetermined quantity or number (or in English, "some"). What is the Italian equivalent of the adjective "some"?
di + the definite article
Alcuni, qualche, and un po' di are forms that translate as "some". "Un po' di" can be followed by a plural or singular noun, but what about the other two?
Alcuni is always followed by a plural noun.
Qualche is always followed by a singular noun.
Exception: when the noun can be measured, but not counted.
This interrogative adjective meaning "how much" or "how many" agrees in gender and number with the noun it modifies. What is it, and its forms?
Quanto:

Quanto, quanti, quanta, quante
To express age, Italian uses what phrase form?
avere + number + anni

i.e. Pietro ha diciannove anni.
Count from 0 to 9 in Italian.
zero, uno, due, tre, quattro, cinque, sei, sette, otto, nove.
Count from 10 to 19 in Italian.
dieci, undici, dodici, tredici, quattordici, quindici, sedici, diciassette, diciotto, diciannove.
Count from 20 to 29 in Italian.
venti, ventuno, ventidue, ventitre, ventiquattro, venticinque, ventisei, ventisette, ventotto, ventinove
Translate the following numbers into their Italian prefixes: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100.
dieci, venti, trenta, quaranta, cinquanta, sessanta, settanta, ottanta, novanta, cento

Note: these numbers drop the final 'o' before a noun.
All numbers are invariable except two. What two numbers are variable, and what are their forms?
Zero and uno.
Uno has the same forms as the indefinite article un.
What is the Italian translation of thousand, million, billion?
thousand: mille, mila
million: milione, milioni
billion: miliardo, miliardi
What are the meanings of the following adjectives expressing quantity?: molto, tanto, troppo, poco
molto: much, a lot of; many
tanto: much, so much; so many
troppo: too much; too many
poco: little; few
What are the forms of the following adjectives expressing quantity?: molto, tanto, troppo, poco
molto, molta, molti, molte
tanto, tanta, tanti, tante
troppo, troppa, troppi, troppe
poco, poca, pochi, poche
What is the meaning of the invariable adjective ogni and as a rule, what does it always proceed?
Ogni: each, every

It always precedes a singular noun.
Give the meaning of tutto, and its forms. What follows it when it is used as an adjective?
Tutto: the whole; all, every
tutto, tutta, tutti, tutte

The adjective tutto is followed by the definite article.
Conjugate the irregular -are verb, andare(to go).
io vado
tu vai
lui va
noi andiamo
voi andate
loro vanno
Conjugate the irregular -are verb, fare(to do; to make).
io faccio
tu fai
lui fa
noi facciamo
voi fate
loro fanno
Conjugate the irregular -are verb, andare(to give).
io do
tu dai
lui dà
noi diamo
voi date
loro danno
Conjugate the irregular -are verb, stare (to stay; to feel).
io sto
tu stai
lui sta
noi stiamo
voi state
loro stanno
What are the days of the week, in Italian?
Domenica, lunedi, martedi, mercoledi, giovedi, venerdi, e sabato.

plural of domenica: domeniche
plural of sabato: sabati
What is the expression for number + times a + expression of time
article + expression of time.

i.e. due volte allanumber + volte + definite settimana
Conjugate the irregular -ere verb, bere (to drink).
io bevo
tu bevi
lui beve
noi beviamo
voi bevete
loro bevono
Conjugate the irregular -ere verb, dovere (to have to, must; to owe).
io devo
tu devi
lui deve
noi dobbiamo
voi dovete
loro devono
Conjugate the irregular -ere verb, potere (can, may, to be able to).
io posso
tu puoi
lui puo
noi possiamo
voi potete
loro possono
Conjugate the irregular -ere verb, volere (to want)
io voglio
tu voui
lui vuole
noi vogliamo
voi volete
loro vogliono
Conjugate the irregular -ere verb, sapere (to know [a fact]).
io so
tu sai
lui sa
noi sappiamo
voi sapete
loro sanno
Conjugate the regular -ere verb, conoscere (to know [be familiar with])
io conosco
tu conosci
lui conosce
noi conosciamo
voi conoscete
loro conoscono
Conjugate the possessive adjectives for the following possessors: io, tu, lui, noi, voi, loro.
il mio, la mia, i miei, le mie
tuo, tua, tuoi, tue
suo, sua, suoi, sue
nostro, nostra, nostri, nostre
vostro, vostra, vostri, vostre
loro, loro, loro, loro
Posessive adjectives are always proceded by the definite article and contract with it (i.e. dallo) except for what kind of nouns?
Singular, unmodified nouns that refer to a relative.
Conjugate the semi-irregular verb finire (to finish).
io fini-sc-o
tu fini-sc-i
lui fini-sc-e
noi fini-iamo
voi fin-ite
loro fin-isc-ono
Conjugate the irregular -ire verb, dire (to say, to tell).
io dico
tu dici
lui dice
noi diciamo
voi dite
loro dicono
Conjugate the irregular -ire verb, uscire (to go out).
io esco
tu esci
lui esce
noi usciamo
voi uscite
loro escono
Conjugate the irregular -ire verb, venire (to come).
io vengo
tu vieni
lui viene
noi veniamo
voi venite
loro vengono
What are the 4 direct-object pronouns used in Italian?
lo, la, li, e le

Note: the pronouns lo and la drop the final vowel before a word beginnin with a vowel
The passato prossimo expresses three English tenses. What are they for this sentence:
Ho portato.
Past perfect: I have carried.
Past: I carried.
Emphatic: I did carry.
What are the participio passato (past participle) endings corresponding to -are, -ere, and -ire verbs?
-ato for -are verbs
-uto for -ere verbs
-ito for -ire verbs
Give the participio passato for the following verbs: comprare, ricevere, e dormire
comprato
ricevuto
dormito
The negative form of the passato prossimo is expressed by placing non in front of which verb?
The auxiliary verb.

i.e. Non ho avuto tempo.
The passato prossimo conjugated with the auxiliary verb avere must agree in ___ and ___ with the direct object pronouns they refer.
They must agree in gender and number.

i.e. Comprato la rivista? Si, l'ho comprata.
Intransitive verbs conjugated with this auxiliary verb must agree with the subject in gender and number. What is that verb?
essere
What two phrases can be used to ask what time it is?
che ora è? o Che ore sono?
What phrase form is used to answer the question "what time is it"?
è + l'una/mezzogiorno/mezzanotte
o
sono le + number
What words distinguish general times of day? i.e., afternoon, AM, PM, evening, etc.
di mattina
del pomeriggio
di sera
di notte
What is the Italian phrase for "At what time"? What is the phrase form for the response?
A che ora?
Response: a + definite article + expression of time
What are the three translations of time? Give examples.
Non ho tempo.
Che ora è?
Tre volte al giorno.
The preposition a is used before...?
before the names of cities and small islands
before nouns such as casa, scuola, teatro, piedi, letto, and tavola
The preposition in is used before...?
before the names of continents, countries, states, regions, and large islands; before nouns such as classe, biblioteca, ufficio, chiesa, citta, montagna, viaggio, vacanza; nouns of transportation, such as treno, aereo, macchina, bicicletta, etc.
The preposition da is used before...?
before a person's name, title, or profession to refer to that person's home or workplace
before a disjunctive pronoun to represent a person's home or workplace
Note: da contracts with the definite article

Add Cards

You must Login or Register to add cards