Glossary of Korean-grammar structures. 2
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- The pattern '-(으)려고 하다' : intend to
- The pattern `-(으)려고 하다' is used with verbs(including `있다'). This pattern is used to indicate a subject's intention. However, this pattern is restricted to first and second personal pronouns. The third personal pronoun will be dealt with in detail later.
`려고 하다' is used if the verb stem ends in a vowel.
`-으려고 하다' is used if the verb stem ends in a consonant.
저는 내일 극장에 가려고 해요. I intend to go to the theater.
1달쯤 서울에 있으려고 해요. I intend to be in Seoul for about 1 month.
1시부터 공부하려고 해요. I intend to study from 1 o'clock.
불고기를 먹으려고 해요. I intend to eat bulgogi.
The negation is expressed in the main verb which has `-(으)려고 하다', not with the `하다' verb.
그 책을 안 사려고 해요. I don't intend to buy that book.
(= 그 책을 사지 않으려고 해요.)
However tense is expressed in the main verb. It will be dealt with in detail later.
- The marker '-한테' : to (person)
- This marker '-한테' is used for indicating the receiver of an action or the one whom something is done or exists.
누구한테 책을 주었어요? To whom did you give a book?
제 친구한테 주었습니다. I gave it to my friend.
누구한테 편지를 쓰세요? To whom did you write a letter?
안나씨 열쇠는 멜라니씨한테 있어요. Mellanie has Anna's key.
선생님한테 물어 보세요. Please ask the teacher.
- The marker '-한테서' : from (person)
- This marker '-한테서' is used for indicating the source or starting point of an action.
누구한테서 그 소식을 들었어요 ? From whom did you hear that news ?
어머니한테서 들었습니다. I heard from my mother.
누구한테서 편지가 왔어요? From whom did you get a letter ?
누구한테서 그 선물을 받았어요? From whom did you receive that present?
- Pre-ending '-겠-' : guess/conjecture
- This pre-ending -겠- is used for expressing the speaker's conjecture or supposition or for asking intention of the person spoken to in a polite request.
요즘 많이 바쁘겠어요. I think you will be busy these days.
저 분은 예뻤겠어요. I think he/she was beautiful.
뭘 드시겠어요 ? What will you eat?
- The pattern '-(으)ㄴ 다음에' : after doing something
- On it's own, the noun '다음' means 'later'. The pattern '-(으)ㄴ 다음에' is used to express 'after something happens' or 'after something happened'. It is used only with verbs.
Tense and negation is expressed in the main verb.
수업이 끝난 다음에 만납시다. Let's meet after class finishes.
친구를 만난 다음에 그 일을 하겠어요. I will do that task(job) after meeting
전화를 한 다음에 오세요. Please come over after you call.
저녁식사를 한 다음에 뭘 할까요? After we finish supper, what shall we do?
However, if the subject of the two clauses (the main clause and the dependent clause which is introduced with this pattern) is the same, this pattern cannot be used with the verbs '가다' (to go) / '오다 '(to come) and their compounds.
내가 집에 간 다음에 공부합니다. (awkward/never used)
내가 학교에 온 다음에 친구를 만납니다. (awkward/never used)
- '-ㄷ' Irregular verbs
- The final consonant '-드' of the verb stem changes into '-ㄹ' when followed by a vowel, but it does not change when followed by a consonant.
듣다 (to listen): 듣 + 어요 -> 들어요.
묻다 (to ask): 묻 + 어 보다 -> 물어 보다.
걷다 (to walk): 걷 + 었어요 -> 걸었어요.
저는 지금 음악을 들어요. I listen to the music now.
잘 모르면 저한테 물어 보세요. If you really don't know, ask me.
어제는 많이 걸었어요. I walked a lot yesterday.
저한테 묻지 마세요. Don't ask me.
However '닫다' to close, '받다' to receive and '믿다' to believe are not irregular verbs.
문을 닫아 주세요. Please close the door.
어제 친구한테서 편지를 받았어요. I received a letter from my friend.
- The pattern '-기 전에' ; before doing
- The word ‘전’ is a noun meaning “time before” or “place in front” and ‘-에’ is a marker meaning “at, in, on”. So the pattern ‘-기 전에’ is used to express of ‘before something happens’. This pattern is always used with verbs, and the subjects of the two clauses can be either the same or different.
오시기 전에 전화하세요. Please give me a call, before you come.
잊기 전에 메모하세요. Please write a memo before you forget.
집에 가기 전에 제 사무실에 들르세요. Before you go home, please drop by my office.
일하기 전에 식사를 하세요. Please eat before you start working.
앤디씨가 오기 전에 영희씨는 집에 가세요. Younghee, you should go home before Andy comes
- The connective '-고' ; and
- This connective ‘-고’ is used to link two clauses in coordination. When the subjects of the two clauses are the same, the two clauses means sequential process. So, in this case, the connective ‘-고’ means ‘ doing A first, and then doing B later’. But when the subjects of the two clauses are different, these two clauses express comparison, and are used with the topic marker ‘-은/는’.
숙제를 하고 가겠어요. I’ll do my homework first and then go.
친구를 만나고 집에 갈 거에요. I’ll meet my friend and then go home.
저는 공부하고 친구는 TV를 봐요. I’m studying and my friend is sleeping.
저는 크고 그분은 작아요. I am tall and he is short.
한국말은 재미있고 영어는 어려워요. Korean is interesting and English is difficult.
이분은 엄마고 저분은 아빠예요. This is my mom, and that is my dad.
- The pattern `-(으)ㄴ 적(이) 있다/없다':
"someone has (never) done something"
- The pattern ' -(으)ㄴ 적(이) 있다/없다 ` is used to indicate one's past experiences. The literal meaning of this pattern is 'the experience of having done something' exists ( or don't exist ).
한국음식을 먹어 본 적이 있으세요 ? Have you ever eaten Korean food ?
- 네, 먹어 본 적이 있어요 . Yes, I have eaten Korean food.
- 아니오, 먹어 본 적이 없어요. No, I have never eaten Korean food.
저는 한국에 가 본 적이 없었어요. I have never been to Korea.
- The connective '-ㄴ(은/는)데' : and/but/so/when
- This connective is used to introduce a certain fact,occurrence, or event.
그것을 사고 싶어요. 그런데지금은 돈이 없어요 I want to buy it. But I have no money now.
-> 그것을 사고 싶은데, 지금은 돈이 없어요 I want to buy it, but I have no money now.
The past tense and future tense can be used with combine with this ending like '-았/었(었)는데`, '-겠는데`.
The form `-ㄴ(은)데' is used for the adjectives and '-이다` in the present tense.
The form '-는데` is used for all other cases.
Sometimes this ending can be used as sentence ending with "-요" like '-는데요'. [if you don't want to repeat the same sentences which are used before in the question etc..]
- The pattern '-(아/어/여)야 되다/하다' : must, have to
- This pattern is used to express obligation or necessity. 꼭 와야 됩니다/합니다. You have to come. Tense is expressed in the verb '하다'.
However, negation is formed a different way, using the pattern.
'-지 말아야 하다.' It will be dealt with in detail later.
- The pattern '-기로 하다.' : decide to do
- The pattern '-기로 하다' is used to indicate one's decision, making a choice between alternatives, or arriving at a solution to an uncertainty or dispute. So, this pattern is usually used in the past tense.
담배를 끊기로 했어요. I decided to quit smoking
In this form, the verb `-하다' can be replaced by the verb `약속하다, 결정하다, 결심하다, 작정하다' etc
There are two different ways of expressing the negative. In the first, when the pattern is preceded by a negative '-지 않기로 하다', it means 'to decide not to do'. In the second, when the negative is expressed in the verb '-기로 하다` itself, like '-기로 하지 않다', it means 'do not decide to do'.
먹지 않기로 했어요. I decided not to eat.
먹기로 하지 않았어요. I haven't decided to eat.
- The connective '-니까' : because, since
- We have already studied `-아(어/여)서', which indicates reason and cause. Now you will study another connective `-(으)니까' which has the same meaning. However, if the main clause is an imperative or propositive, only the connective '-니까' can be used in the dependent clause. In this case, '-아(어/여)서' cannot be used.
비가 오니까 택시를 타세요. Because it is raining, take a taxi.
피곤하니까 좀 쉽시다. Because we are tired, let's take a rest.
- The connective '-지만' : but
- This connective is used to join two sentences which are in contrast with each other.
바쁘지만, 도와드리겠어요. I'm busy, but I will help you.
- The pattern `-(으)ㄹ 때' ; when/while
- The pattern `-(으)ㄹ 때' is used to express the time when something takes place or exists. When the two actions happen at the same time, past tense is not expressed with this pattern. But if the action of the `-ㄹ 때' clause happened before the action of the nexe clause, past tense should be expressed in the `-ㄹ때' clause. This pattern is used with all verbs and adjectives but `이다' can be used only in the past tense, not in the present tense. '-을때' is used after verb stems ending in a consonant, '-ㄹ때' is used after verb stems ending in a vowel.
그분이 떠날 때, 같이 갑시다. When he leaves, let's go together.
This pattern can be followed by any of the particles such as `-이/가, -을/를, -에, -도, -마다, -까지, -부터, etc..
학교에 갈 때가 되었어요. It's time to go to school.
(The time that we go to school came)
- The connective `-기 때문에' : so, therefore, because
- This pattern can be followed by any of the particles such as `-이/가, -을/를, -에, -도, -마다, -까지, -부터, etc..
학교에 갈 때가 되었어요. It's time to go to school.
(The time that we go to school came)
Contrary to the connective `-어서' which is used to express cause and reason only in the present form, this connective is used with all tenses.
While this connective is used with verbs and adjectives, the form `- 때문에' (without the `-기') is used with nouns and has the same meaning
비 때문에 안 가고 싶어요. Because of the rain, I don't want to go.
무엇 때문에 오셨어요 ? What makes you come here ?
(Because of what, did you come here ?)
- -(으)면 안 되다.
- For the negative answer to a request for permission, you have to use the pattern '-(으)면 안 되다.' '-으면 안 되다' is used after verb stems ending in a consonant except 'ㄷ', -면 안 되다' is used after verb stems ending in a vowel : an consonant 'ㄷ'.
- 아니오, 들어오면 안 돼요.
- 네, 들어와도 괜찮아요/돼요/좋아요. May I go in ?
- You must not go in. (You shouldn't go in.)
- You may go in.
떠들면 안 돼요. You must not make noise.
(You shouldn't make noise.)
지각하면 안 돼요. Don't be late. (You shouldn't be late.)
- The Pattern ‘-았(었/였)으면 좋겠다' : I wish something would happen
- This pattern is used to express the speaker's hope or desire. Even though the past tense -았/었/였- is used, this pattern does not refer to the past. So, even when this pattern is used without the past tense like ‘-(으)면 좋겠다', there is no difference in meaning.
- The Pattern ‘-고 있다' : (someone) is doing (something)
- The pattern '-고 있다` is used to indicate a kind of process or continuing action.
뭘 하고 있어요 ? What are you doing now ?
Tense and negation are expressed in the verb ‘있다'. Sometimes, this pattern is used with the honorific '계시다' to address or refer to persons of superior social standing, like older people, teachers, etc.
누구를 기다리고 계세요? Who are you waiting for?
This pattern is often used to express an action which started in the past and is still going on.
이 회사에서 십 년 동안 일하고 있어요. I've been working at this company for the past ten years
- The Pattern '-지 않다' : not, no
- There are two ways in Korean to form negation. As you have studied in Lesson 3 of Novice Korean I, the easiest way is to just put the adverb ‘안' in front of verbs or adjectives. The second way to use the pattern ‘-지 않다'. This pattern directly followes by verbs or adjectives. So, negation formed by ‘안' is called ‘short type negation', and the Negation by ‘-지 않다' is ‘long type negation'.
- The Words '씩' : each/respectively
- This Suffix ‘-씩' is used to indicate distribution and is attached to numbers and any counting classifier.
사과를 하나씩 먹어요. We eat apples one by one.
매일 두 시간씩 공부해요. I study two hours every day.
이 사과를 한 개씩 주세요. Give one apple each.
- The connective '-다가' : On the way to / And then
- Verb + -다가 (Present Tense)
This ending indicates the change of one's action on one's way, that is, interruption or discontinuation of an action. 공부하다가 잤어요.
Verb + -었다가 (Past Tense)
This ending indicates the reversal or unexpected consequence after the completion of the first action. In this case, usually, `가다, 오다' are used with some other verb.
그분이 왔다(가) 갔다(가) 해요.
- The connective '-느라고' : Because of doing something
- The Connective ‘-느라고’ is used to express cause and reason, or to give an excuse for or explanation of one's action. The subject of the two clauses must be the same. The verb in the first clause must be an action verb.
2.1 Subject + (1)Verb Stem + 느라고, 못/안 + (2)Verb stem
This connective is used to indicate that a subject has given priority to the action in the first clause, has made a choice of it. The 느라고 in the first clause (verb+느라고) is used when a person faces two different things or events which must be carried out at the same time.
Subject + (1)verb stem + 느라고, (2)verb
Sometimes there is not actually a choice involved, just the force of circumstances. In this case predicates used in the second clause are usually limited to -늦다/늦게 ---하다. 바쁘다, 힘들다, 잊어버리다, 정신이 없다, 피곤하다.
- The ending '-(는)군요' : Exclamatory sentence ending
- This ending is used to express surprise, delight, or wonder with an exclamation mark. While adjectives and ‘-이다' take the ‘-군요!' form, other verbs take the ‘-는군요!' form. However in past tense, verbs also take the ‘-군요' form.
정말 어렵군요 ! It's really difficult !
- The Pattern '-(으)ㄴ/는/ -(으)ㄹ 것 같다 : It seems that ...
- 1.1 The pattern '-(으)ㄴ 것 같다' is used in the present tense with adjectives or '이다' to express the speaker's thought or opinion. However the pattern -(으) ㄹ 것 같다 is used in the future tense to indicate the speaker's stronger conjecture or presumption.
The difference between the above two examples is as follows:
The sentence "비싼 것 같아요." is used when the speaker knows the price, or is seeing the price first hand and is conparing with his/her expectation.
However the sentence "비쌀 것 같아요" is used when the speaker is guessing the price without prior knowledge of the price.
비쌀 것 같아요. I think it will be expensive.
그분이 미국사람일 것 같아요. I think he will be an American.
1.2 With general verbs, the pattern '-는 것 같다' is used in the present tense, '(으)ㄴin the past tense, and (으)ㄹ in the future tense.
Negation is expressed either in the final verb '같다' or in the main verb preceding this pattern. There is slight difference in meaning between the two. Tense is expressed in the final verb '같다'.
- The pattern 'Verb + -(으)ㄴ 지 + time word + 되다' : since
- This pattern 'Verb + -(으)ㄴ 지 + time word + 되다' is used to express an interval of time which extends from a definite past to the present. The case marker '-가` or '-는' can be attached optionally after ‘지'
한국에 온 지(가) 얼마나 되었어요 ? How long have you been in Korea ?
-은 지 is used after verb stems ending in a consonant.
-ㄴ 지 is used after verb stems ending in a vowel.
- The connective -(으)려고 : in order to
- You have already studied the connective '-(으)러' which is used to express the purpose of the speaker's action. This connective ’-(으)려고’ is also used to indicate the purpose of the speaker (subject)'s action. So, these two connectives are interchangeable. While the connective '-(으)러' is always followed by either '가다’, '오다’ or their compounds such as '들어가다/들어오다', '나가다/나오다' etc., the connective '-(으)려고' can be followed by any verbs. The connective '-(으)려고' is used in the present and past tense of the main verb (final verb), but is never used with the future tense. Tense and negation are expressed in the main verb (final verb).
안나씨 주려고 이 모자를 샀어요. I bought this hat to give to you.
- Relative clause ending -는 ; Present Tense
- This ending `-는' is attached to the verb directly and is used in the present tense. Its function is the same as the English relative clause construction.한국어를 가르치는 일이 쉽지 않아요.
- Relative clause ending -(으)ㄴ ; Past Tense
- This ending `-(으)ㄴ' is attached to the verb directly and is used in the past tense. Its function is the same as the English relative clause 'which (past tense verb)’.
'-ㄴ' is used after verb stems ending in a vowel and ‘-(으)ㄴ’ is used after verb stems ending in a consonant. 편지를 보낸 분이 누구인지 아세요 ? Do you know the man who sent this letter?
- Indirect Discourse Formation of Declaratives '-다고 하다'
- (1) Present tense :
A. Verbs : Verb stem + -ㄴ/는다고 해요/했어요.
-ㄴ다고 해요/했어요. is used after verb stems ending in a vowel.
“학교에 가요.” 학교에 가- + -ㄴ다고 해요/했어요.
학교에 간다고 해요/했어요.
Adjectives : Adjective Stem + -다고 해요/했어요.
“아주 바빠요.” 아주 바쁘- + -다고 해요/했어요.
아주 바쁘다고 해요/했어요.
C. 이다 Verb
“학생이에요.’’ 학생이- + -라고 해요/했어요.
(2) Past tense ; -Verb/Adjective stem + -았/었/였- + -다고 해요/했어요.
(3) Future tense ; -라고 해요/했어요
- Indirect Discourse Formation of the Interrogative '-냐고 하다'
- If you want to refer to what someone asked (question) with indirect discourse, you have to change the verb and adjective form with the tense pre-ending like Plain style form. Then attach the form “-냐고 하다.”. Here the form ‘하다’ means ‘(someone) ask/asked if…’ like the verb ‘묻다 (to ask etc.--> 물어요/물었어요)’. This verb is changed into ‘해요 (present tense) and 했어요 (past tense), depending when the original original utterance took place. Sometimes people put the form “느” between the verb stem and ‘-냐고 하다’, but there is no difference in the meaning whether there is “느” or not in the formation with verbs and ‘있다’. However when using adjectives and ‘이다’, “느” is not inserted.
- Indirect Discourse Formation of the Propositive '-자고 하다'
- If you want to refer to what someone suggested (let’s ----) with indirect discourse, just attach the form “-자고 하다” to the verb stem directly. This is only used for present tense verb stems.
“빨리 갑시다 !” 빨리 가- + -자고 해요/했어요.
빨리 가자고 해요/했어요.
- Indirect Discourse Formation of the Imperative '-라고 하다'
- If you want to refer someone commanded (order) with indirect discourse, just attach the form “-라고 하다” to the verb stem directly. This is only used for present tense verb stems.
“빨리 가세요 !” 빨리 가- + -(으)라고 해요/했어요.
빨리 가라고 해요/했어요.
- The Pattern -는 것 : (the act, fact, manner) of doing something
- This pattern is preceded by verbs only, and means ‘the act, fact or manner of doing something’. The equivalent of this pattern in English is ‘---ing’ or to (do), or the thing that someone is doing
여행하는 것 traveling
여행하는 것이 어때요 ? How is traveling
- The Connective '-(아어여)서' : do and do
- This connective is used when the subject performs one action and then a second one. This connective is attached to the first verb and is then followed by a second verb.
학교에 가서 공부했어요. I went to school and studied.
This connective is used with some verbs which indicate movement or change of posture in the first verb, such as 가다(to go), 오다(to come), 서다(to stand up), 앉다(to sit down) However, you have to know the difference between the connective `-고' and `-서' which have the same function as 'and'. Basically, the verbs `가다, 오다' etc. cannot be used with the connective `-고' when the subject of two verbs is the same. However if the subject of the two verbs is the same, and the verbs are not '가다, 오다 etc', the connective `-고' can be used.
집에 가서, 쉬겠어요. (Grammatical) I will go and take a rest.
- The Connective '-(으)면서' ; someone does something while he is doing something else (at the same time)
- This connective is used to express two simultaneous actions done by the same person. It attaches to the verb directly. '-면' is used after verb stems ending in a vowel or the consonant '-ㄹ' and '-으면' is used after verb stems ending in all consonants except '-ㄹ'.
음악을 들으면서 공부해요. I study while listening to music.
While I am listening to music, I also study.
- The Pattern '-게 되다.' (it) turns out (that), It is arranged that -, (the situation) makes something to be -
- This pattern ‘-게 되다’ is used to express the idea that the situation has been arranged by certain environmental facts or conditions. It is used with verbs and ‘있다’. 열심히 공부하면 한국말을 잘 하게 됩니다. If you study hard, you will speak Korean well.
- The Pattern ‘-고 생각하다’ ; I think that ---
- This pattern is used to express the speaker’s presupposition or opinion about a certain fact or event. This pattern is preceded by the present form, the past form and the future form with ‘-다/라고 생각하다’. This pattern is made the same way as indirect discourse
저는 그 가방이 비쌌다고 생각해요. I think that that bag was expensive.
- Korean grammar 2
- Korean grammar 2
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