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Glossary of Kind of Learning

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A type of learning in which the consequences of behavior are manipulated in order to increase or decrease the frequency of an existing response or to shape an entirely new response
Operant Conditiong
A type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another.
Classical Conditioning
Learning by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of that behavior; learning by imitation.
Observational Learning
A stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response without prior learning.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
A neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes associated with it and elicits a conditioned response
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
The learned response that comes to be elicited by a conditioned stimulus as a result of its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Response (CR)
In classical conditioning, the weakening and eventual disapearance of the conditioned response as a result of repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus
Extinction
In classical condtioning, the tendency to make a condtioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus.
Generalization
The learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli so that the condtioned response occurs only to the original conditioned stimulus but not to similar stimuli.
Discrimination
A systematic process for administering partial reinforcement that produces a distinct rate and pattern of responses and degree of resistance to extinction
Schedule of Reinforcement
A schedule in which a reinforcer is given after a fixed number of correct, nonreinforced responses.
Fixed-ration Schedule
A schedule in which a reinforcer is given after a verying number of nonreinforced responses, based on an average ratio.
Variable-ratio Schedule
A schedule in which a reinforcer is given following the first correct responses after a specific period of time has elapsed.
Fixed-interval Schedule
A schedule in which a reinforcer is given after the first correct response that follows a varying time of nonreinforcement, based on an average time.
Variable-Interval Schedule

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