Glossary of Katzung Insulin and Oral Diabetic Agents

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insulin lispro
rapid acting, low chance of forming auto-dimers, better insulin control than reg insulin
insulin aspart
rapid acting, inhibits auto-aggrigation,
regular insulin
short acting, dose dependant, IV useable, good for IV ketoacidosis or post surgery
Lentate insulin
intermediate acting, dose dependant
NPH insulin
intermediate acting, dose dependant
ultralentate insulin
used in combo w injections of rapid acting insulin. Human insulin. tid.
insulin glargine
peakless, ultralong acting, background insulin replacement, low immunogenicity
human insulin benefits
less immunogenic
insulin therapy complications
hypoglycemia, insulin allergy (IgE), insulin resistance (IgG), lipodystrophy at injection site
sulfonurea, short half-life, best for older diabetics
up insulin release, down serum glucagon, close extrapancreatic potassium channels
sulfonurea. contraindicated in hepatic or renal inssuffic. prolonged hypogycemia rxns in elderly, hyperemic flush after alcohol ingestion, rare hematological toxicity.
sulfonurea. more slowly absorbed, tid.
sulfonurea, potential hypoglycemia, rare flushing, up free water clearance. Coontra in renal insuff and hepatic impairment.
sulfonurea. shortest halflife, less likely to cause hypoglycemia, contra in hepatic and renal impairment.
sulfonurea, lowest dose,
meglitinide, fast onset, hypoglycemia w/ skipped meal, good for type II w/ sulfur allergy
insulin secretagogue, d-phenylalanie deriv, partially restores insulin release, low incidence of hypoglycemia, safe for renal impairment
biguanide, good for insulin resistance, se: anorexia, n/v, diarrhea contra:renal disease, hepatic disease
Thiazolidinediones (Tzds)
ligands of perioxisome proliferator activated gamma receptors (PPAR-gamma), effect lipid glucose metabolism, se: weight gainfluid retention, down LDL up HDL
Tzd, for type II
tzd, for type II
alpha-glucosidease inhibitors
Acarbose and miglitol. prevents absorption of some sugars. se: flatulence, abd pain, hypoglycemia. contra: renal impairment

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