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Glossary of Kaplan Grammar Source Concepts and Practice Questions

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What is a phrase?
It is a related group of words that does not contain both a subject and a verb (though it may contain either.)
What is a clause?
It is a related group of words that does contain both a subject and a verb. Can be independent or subordinate.
What is an independent clause?
It expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.
What is a subordinate clause?
It cannot stand by itself; it depends on another clause to complete its meaning.
What do words do in a sentence?
Each words serves a particular function. It might describe, name, or connect; it might show the relationship between two ideas or express emotion.
How does function affect words?
It may change the form of words such as beauty, beautify, beautiful.
What is a noun's function?
It names a person, place, or thing.
What is a noun's form?
can be singular or plural, can be collective (group nouns) which are treated as singular, concrete which name tangile things, abstract which name ideas or qualities, proper which refer to specific people, places, or things.
What is a collective noun?
It is a group noun that names a class or a group as a single entity compose of more than one unit and are treated as singular
What is a concrete noun?
It names a tangible thing which you can experience directly with your senses
What is an abstract noun?
It names an idea or quality such as things you can't experience with your senses.
What is a proper noun?
It refers to a specific person, place, or thing.
What is a common noun?
It refers to general people, places, or things
What is a pronoun's function?
It takes the place of or refers to one or more nouns (and sometimes whole phrases or clauses.)
What is a pronoun's form?
Personal which refers to specific people/things, Possessive indicates ownership, Reflexive indicates the person/thing that performs the action also receives the action, Relative introduces subordinate clauses that modify a noun or pronoun, Demonstrative identify or point ot specific nouns, Indefinite refers to non-specific people/things, Interrogative introduces questions
What is a personal prounoun?
It refers to specific people or things.
What is a possessive pronoun?
It indicates ownership.
What is a reflexive pronoun?
It indicates that the person or thing that performs the action also receives the action.
What is a relative pronoun?
It introduces subordinate clauses that modify a noun or pronoun in the sentence.
What is a demonstrative pronoun?
It identifies or points to specific nouns.
What is an indefinite pronoun?
It refers to non-specific people or things.
What is an interrogative pronoun?
It introduces questions.
What is the function of a verb?
It expresses an action or state of being.
What is the form of a verb?
It changes depending upon the person(s) performing the action and the tense (when the action takes/took/will take place.)
What is a helping verb?
It helps indicate the tense of the base verb and possibly the voice or mood.
What is the function of an adjective?
It describes or modifies nouns and pronouns.
What is the form of an adjective?
It has no specific form because just about any kind of word can function as an adjective.
What is the function of an adverb?
It describes or modifies verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
What is the form of an adverb?
It comes in different shapes and sizes, often by adding -ly.
What do adjectives modify?
nouns or pronouns only
What do adverbs modify?
verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs
What is the function of a preposition?
It expresses the relationship (often in time or space) between two words in a sentence.
What is the form of a preposition?
It always comes in a prepositional phrase beginning with ethe preposition and ending with a noun or pronoun.
What is the function of a conjunction?
It joins two or more parts of sentences - words, phrases, or clauses - and expresses the relationship between those parts.
What is the form of a conjunction?
It is coordinating which connects grammatically equivalent elements, correlative which are pairs that connect grammatically equivalent elements, subordinating which are adverbs taht introduce subordinate clauses, and conjunctive adverbs which introduce independent clauses
What is a coordinating conjunction?
It connects grammatically equivalent elements (words, phrases, or clauses.)
What is a correlative conjunction?
It is a pair that connects grammatically equivalent elements.
What is a subordinating conjunctions?
It is an adverb that introduces subordinate clauses and are distince from 'regular' adverbs because they connect subordinate and independent clauses, showing the relationships between the two.
What is a conjunctive adverb?
It introduces independent clauses and are distinct from 'regular' adverbs becasue they connect clauses and show the relationship between them. It connects an independent clause to the preceding clause.
What is the function of an interjection?
It is a sudden, usually emotional word or phrase that can stand alone as sentences?
What is the form of an interjection?
It is a single word or a short phrase, often followed by an exclamation mark.

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