Glossary of KINE 2020 - Gagliese Material
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- What is health
- Health is social, mental and physical well-being, not merely the absence of disease.
- What is wellness?
- Wellness is optimal health and vitality.
- Today we are more likely to die from ____________ diseases. Up to the early 1900's we were likely to die from infectious diseases like: (List Three)
- Chronic. Tuberculosis, Pneumonia, Influenza
- What is a health behavior?
- A health behavior is an action undertaken to enhance or inhibit health.
- What are the three levels of prevention?
- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
- What factors affect whether a health behavior will be performed?
- SES, Age,Health locus of control, Perceived Benefit, Stress, Age, Self Efficacy
- What are the components to the theory of reasoned action?
- Subjective norm + Attitude = Intention = Behavior
- What are the stages of change?
- Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance, Relapse.
- What are the stages of HPA axis and what hormones are released?
- Hypothalumus released CRH, Pituitary Gland Released ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), Adrenal Gland releases Cortisol. The sympathetic Nervous system releases catecholamines and epinephrine.
- What is the function of Locus Coeruleus?
- The locus Coeruleus releases nor epinephrine and modulates the autonomic nervous system. It is known as the "pacemaker of the brain"
- Chronic stress (allostatic load) causes?
- Immune Suppression, Type II diabetes, heart disease, obesity, cognitive impairment
- How does regular exercise affect stress levels?
- Regular exercise seems to lower the HPA stress response.
- According to Selye, what is the triad response to stress?
- Stress causes a triad of responses:
1) Enlarged Adrenal Glands
2) Shrinking of thymus and lymph nodes
3) GI Bleeding
- What is the general adaptation syndrome?
- A general stressor leads to a specific response:
- According to Lazarus (1966), what is his appraisal theory?
- Stress is the combination of primary appraisal (stressor) and secondary appraisal (coping abilities). If stressor is greater than coping abilities, then an individual will feel stressed.
- What is a stress modulator?
- A stress modulator are internal and external resources that affect how stress is perceived.
- Provide an example of a stress modulator.
- What did Visintainer and Seligman (1983) find in their study with rats injected with tumor cells?
- Only 50% of the escapable shock and control developed tumors whereas, 73% of the inescapable shock rats developed tumors.
- What was the outcome of the executive monkey study? How was the study flawed?
- The executive monkey's died within 3 months. There was no random assignment to groups, nor was there a control group.
- what did Weiss (1968) find with their rats and shocking?
- Weiss found that the escapable shock and control group had the same response, whereas the inescapable shock group got sicker.
- What did Bartrop et al (1977) find out about stress and immune function? (widowed men versus control experiment)
- Bartrop found that stress doesn't reduce the amount of immune cells, but reduces the responsiveness of the cells.
- What did Cohen et al. (1991) find out about stress, immunity and infectious illness? (inhalation of saline or virus)
- Stress and negative mood can increase likelihood of getting sick.
- What did Kiecolt-Glaser et al. (1995) find about stress and wound healing in Caregiver's of alzheimers patients?
- Researchers found that stress hormone elevations slows wound healing.
- Padgett et al. (1998) found that X amount of corticosterone in stressed versus non stressed rats. Punch biopsy + wound healing.
- 4.5 times more corticosterone levels than control group.
- What are the 5 steps to wellness/self actualization?
- Realism, Acceptance, Autonomy, Capacity for intimacy, Creativity.
- What is a Type A personality? What is a toxic core? What is a Type B personality?
- Type A personality: aggressive, hostile, competitive, schedule driven.
Toxic Core: quick tempered, angered easily, untrustworthy in others
Type B: calm, laid back, relaxed, easy go attitude.
- What is hardiness? What are the three C's?
- Hardiness is the ability to reappraise potential stressors into something manageable. Control, Committment, Challenge.
- Define the following: simple phobia, social phobia, Panic Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
- Simple Phobia: (most common) fear of something definite
fear of humiliation/embarrassment
unexpected surges in anxiety with physical symptoms, leads to agoraphobia
GAD: fear of no specifc threat, inability to stop worrying, co morbid with depression
- Differentiate between an obsession and a compulsion.
What is PTSD?
- An obsession is recurrent thoughts. A compulsion is a recurrent action.
PTSD or post traumatic stress disorder is recurrent thoughts and images of a traumatic event. Sleep disturbances; co morbid with depression and anxiety.
- What is dysthymia?
- Dysthymia is depression that has persisted for two years
- What is bipolar disorder?
- Alternating periods of mania and depression.
- What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?
- Delusions, hallucinations, formal thought disturbance, anhedonia, slow movements
- What are the 4 types of schizophrenia?
- Paranoid, Catatonic, Disorganized, undifferentiated.
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