Glossary of KINE 2020 - Gagliese Material

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What is health
Health is social, mental and physical well-being, not merely the absence of disease.
What is wellness?
Wellness is optimal health and vitality.
Today we are more likely to die from ____________ diseases. Up to the early 1900's we were likely to die from infectious diseases like: (List Three)
Chronic. Tuberculosis, Pneumonia, Influenza
What is a health behavior?
A health behavior is an action undertaken to enhance or inhibit health.
What are the three levels of prevention?
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
What factors affect whether a health behavior will be performed?
SES, Age,Health locus of control, Perceived Benefit, Stress, Age, Self Efficacy
What are the components to the theory of reasoned action?
Subjective norm + Attitude = Intention = Behavior
What are the stages of change?
Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance, Relapse.
What are the stages of HPA axis and what hormones are released?
Hypothalumus released CRH, Pituitary Gland Released ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), Adrenal Gland releases Cortisol. The sympathetic Nervous system releases catecholamines and epinephrine.
What is the function of Locus Coeruleus?
The locus Coeruleus releases nor epinephrine and modulates the autonomic nervous system. It is known as the "pacemaker of the brain"
Chronic stress (allostatic load) causes?
Immune Suppression, Type II diabetes, heart disease, obesity, cognitive impairment
How does regular exercise affect stress levels?
Regular exercise seems to lower the HPA stress response.
According to Selye, what is the triad response to stress?
Stress causes a triad of responses:
1) Enlarged Adrenal Glands
2) Shrinking of thymus and lymph nodes
3) GI Bleeding
What is the general adaptation syndrome?
A general stressor leads to a specific response:

Alarm Stage
Resistance Stage
Exhaustion Stage
According to Lazarus (1966), what is his appraisal theory?
Stress is the combination of primary appraisal (stressor) and secondary appraisal (coping abilities). If stressor is greater than coping abilities, then an individual will feel stressed.
What is a stress modulator?
A stress modulator are internal and external resources that affect how stress is perceived.
Provide an example of a stress modulator.
What did Visintainer and Seligman (1983) find in their study with rats injected with tumor cells?
Only 50% of the escapable shock and control developed tumors whereas, 73% of the inescapable shock rats developed tumors.
What was the outcome of the executive monkey study? How was the study flawed?
The executive monkey's died within 3 months. There was no random assignment to groups, nor was there a control group.
what did Weiss (1968) find with their rats and shocking?
Weiss found that the escapable shock and control group had the same response, whereas the inescapable shock group got sicker.
What did Bartrop et al (1977) find out about stress and immune function? (widowed men versus control experiment)
Bartrop found that stress doesn't reduce the amount of immune cells, but reduces the responsiveness of the cells.
What did Cohen et al. (1991) find out about stress, immunity and infectious illness? (inhalation of saline or virus)
Stress and negative mood can increase likelihood of getting sick.
What did Kiecolt-Glaser et al. (1995) find about stress and wound healing in Caregiver's of alzheimers patients?
Researchers found that stress hormone elevations slows wound healing.
Padgett et al. (1998) found that X amount of corticosterone in stressed versus non stressed rats. Punch biopsy + wound healing.
4.5 times more corticosterone levels than control group.
What are the 5 steps to wellness/self actualization?
Realism, Acceptance, Autonomy, Capacity for intimacy, Creativity.
What is a Type A personality? What is a toxic core? What is a Type B personality?
Type A personality: aggressive, hostile, competitive, schedule driven.
Toxic Core: quick tempered, angered easily, untrustworthy in others
Type B: calm, laid back, relaxed, easy go attitude.
What is hardiness? What are the three C's?
Hardiness is the ability to reappraise potential stressors into something manageable. Control, Committment, Challenge.
Define the following: simple phobia, social phobia, Panic Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
Simple Phobia: (most common) fear of something definite
Social Phobia:
fear of humiliation/embarrassment
Panic Disorder:
unexpected surges in anxiety with physical symptoms, leads to agoraphobia
GAD: fear of no specifc threat, inability to stop worrying, co morbid with depression
Differentiate between an obsession and a compulsion.
What is PTSD?
An obsession is recurrent thoughts. A compulsion is a recurrent action.
PTSD or post traumatic stress disorder is recurrent thoughts and images of a traumatic event. Sleep disturbances; co morbid with depression and anxiety.
What is dysthymia?
Dysthymia is depression that has persisted for two years
What is bipolar disorder?
Alternating periods of mania and depression.
What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?
Delusions, hallucinations, formal thought disturbance, anhedonia, slow movements
What are the 4 types of schizophrenia?
Paranoid, Catatonic, Disorganized, undifferentiated.

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