Glossary of KINE 2020 - Cardiovascular Health
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- What is 1st and 2nd leading causes of death in Canada?
- Cardiovascular Disease followed by Cancer are the leading causes of death in Canada.
- Why is the left wall of the heart the thickest?
- The left ventricle needs more muscle because it pumps blood to the whole body.
- A pacemaker replaces which defective heart conductor?
- The SA node is replaced by a pacemaker if it is defective.
- What are varicose veins?
- Varicose veins is a defect in the valves of the veins. Blood pools in the veins and becomes painful. Varicose veins is usually treated by removing the veins or by injecting a chemical that causes scarring in the vein.
- What are the major six factors of CVD that can be changed?
- 1) Tobacco Use
3) Cholesterol levels
5) Physical inactivity
- What are the four risk factors that can't be changed?
- 1) Heredity
- What are the 2 additional contributing factors?
- 1) Triglyceride levels
2) Psychological and social factors
- What organ regulates cholesterol production? How do VLDL's play a role in cholesterol regulation?
- The liver regulates cholesterol production. VLDL's are comprised of cholesterol and triglycerides. VLDL's break into LDL and triglycerides while in the blood. Excess LDL's are deposited on the arterial walls. HDL's remove the excess LDL and bring them back to the liver for recycling.
- What are six psychological risk factors for CVD?
- 1) Stress
2) Chronic hostility and anger
3) Suppressing psychological distress
4) Depression and anxiety
5) Social Isolation
6) Low SES
- When does the incidence of heart disease increase drastically in women? Why?
- The risk for heart disease increases after the age of 65 due to menopause. The abscence of circulation estrogen increases risk of heart disease.
- What gender is more likely to die from a cardiovascular disease?
- Males are more likely to die from CVD.
- What is another term used for hypertension?
- High blood pressure.
- What is normal blood pressure?
- Normal Blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg
- Differentiate between systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.
- Systolic blood pressure is measured during the contraction phase (systole), and Diastolic bp is measured during the relaxation phase (diastole)
- What is stage 1 hypertension? Stage II hypertension?
- Stage 1 Hypertension has a reading of 140-159/90-99 mmHg
Stage II Hypertension has a reading of 160 or higher/ 100 or higher mmHg
- What is the definition of heart failure?
- The body's inability to pump blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body.
- What is athlerosclerosis?
- Athlerosclerosis is a build up of plaque on the coronary arteries
- What is an electrocardiogram?
- A test to detect abnormalities by measuring electrical activity of the heart.
- What is an angiogram?
- A picture of the arterial system taken after injecting a dye that can be seen on an x-ray.
- Differentiate between a thrombus and embolus.
- A thrombus is a stationary clot and an embolus is a free floating clot.
- What is an aneurysm?
- a sac formed by the distention or dilation of a arterial wall. The arterial wall then bursts causing bleeding into the brain.
- What are the two types of ischemic strokes?
- Thrombotic Stroke and Embolic stroke.
- What kind of strokes are most common? Compare Hemorragic to Ischemic stroke
- 80% of all strokes are ischemic and 20% of all strokes are hemorragic.
- What is a Transient Ischemic Attack?
- A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is known as mini stroke that is usually a precursor to a full blown stroke. TIA produces temporary stroke like symptoms like dizziness, loss of speech, numbness in arm or leg.
- What is congestive heart failure? what are the two conditions that can occur from it?
- Congestive heart failure is when the blood cannot pump at it's normal output and blood pools in veins of the body. 1) Pulmonary Edema (LT side failure): fluid collects in the lungs. 2)Peripheral Swelling (RT): fluid pools in the peripheries
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