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Glossary of Introduction to Psychology 2

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Every event has a cause.
Striving for immediate causes rather than searching for final causes.
Determinism
Behavior is due to a person's decision not external determinants.
Free Will
Relationship between mind and body.
Mind-Body (Mind-Brain)
Mind is seperate from brain.
Mind Controls the brain and body.
Dualism
Conscious experience is inseperable from the physical brain.
Monism
Determines roles of heredity and environment in expression of particular behaviors.
Nature-Nurture
1st Psych lab in Germany in 1879. Experiments have 2 elements (Feeling,Sensations).
William Wundt
Cornell University in 1892. Nature of mental experiences.
Edward Titchener
Present stimuli and subjects describe features.
Structuralism
Founder of american psychology. Harvard University. Concerned with actions the mind performs.
William James
How the mind produces various behaviors.
Functionalism
Genetic factors (Drugs,Genetics)
Biological
Result of past actions, not what they think.
Behavioral
Behavior can be understood with scientific methods.
Determinist
Simple responses to simple stimuli. Tested this in animals.
Jacques Loeb
Behavior is how a stimulus triggers a response.
Stimulus Response Psychology
Describing what someone did, not guessing what he was trying to do.
B.F. Skinner
Founder of Behaviorism. Environment molds behavior.
John Watson
Thinking processes and aquiring knowledge.
Cognitive
Consciousness, values and beliefs.
Humanistic
Person feels fulfilled and content.
Peak Experiences
Viewed humans as basically good.
Carl Rogers
Striving for ones full potential.
Self-Actualization
Accepting someone as they are.
Unconditional Positive Regard
Basic needs, safety, psychological needs, then self-actualization.
Hierarchy of Needs/
Abraham Maslow
Uncovering underlying drives and motivations.
Psychodynamic
Sexual motivation to explain behavior.
Sigmund Freud
Guided by individuals ancestors. Saw humans as basically good.
Carl Jung
Guided by ambitions.
Alfred Adler
1.)Develop Hypothesis
2.)Test Hypothesis
3.)Measure Results
4.)Develop Conclusions
Research Methods
Entire group being tested.
Population
Closely resembles the population.
Representative Sample
Everyone has equal chance of being selected.
Random Sample
Experimenter unintentionally distorts procedures or expected outcome.
Experimenter Bias
Observer records data without knowing predictions.
Blind Observer
Pill with no known pharmacological effects.
Placebo
Either observer or participants are unaware who received which treatment.
Single-Blind Study
Both observers and participants are unaware of who received treatments.
Double-Blind Study
Study subjects in natural conditions.
Naturalistic Observation
In depth description of individual.
Case History
Attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors through responses to questions.
Surveys
Measure relationship between 2 variables.
Correlation
Measure 2 variables without controlling either.
Correlation Study
Mathematical relationship between 2 variables.+1 to -1.
Correlation Coefficient
Investigator manipulates at least 1 variable. Can prove cause and effect.
Experiment
Experimenter changes or controls.
Independent Variable
Item measured to see how it is affected.
Dependent Variable
Told what is expected and agree to continue with study.
Informed Consent
Must be ensured among participants.
Confidentiality
Contains a Cell body, Dendrites, and an Axon.
Neuron
Insulator that aids in the transmission of impulses along an axon.
Myelin
Axons send information with electrical and chemical processes called?
An on off switch
Action Potential
Area between 2 neurons where one either excites or inhibits the next.
Synapse
Chemicals stored in the neuron and activate receptors of other neurons.
Neurotransmitters
Brain and spinal cord that communicates with the body.
Central Nervous System
Bundles of axons between spinal cord and the body.
Peripheral Nervous System
Peripheral nerves that communicate with the skin and muscles.
Somatic Nervous System
Controls internal organs and is involuntary.
Autonomic Nervous System
2chanins of neurons to the left and right side of the spinal cord. Fight or Flight.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Axons extending from medulla and spinal cord to neurons near the internal organs. Non-Emergency functions.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Set of glands producing hormones and releasing them into the blood.
Endocrine System
Chemicals released by glands, and travel in the blood to other body parts.
Hormones
Where are the Medulla and Pons located?
Midbrain
What regulates overall arousal of the brain?
Reticular Formation
Controls rapid actions such as dribbling a basketball. Located in the hindbrain.
Cerebellum
Outer surface of the forebrain. 2 Hemispheres. Sensation and motor control. Gray Matter.
Cerebral Cortex
Specializes in vision.
Occipital Lobe
Specializes in touch, pain, temp. and awareness of body parts.
Parietal Lobe
Processing area for hearing and complex vision.
Temporal Lobe
Controls fine movements.
Frontal Lobe
Set of axons connecting the two hemispheres of the brain.
Corpus Callosum
Condition where neurons in the brain emit abnormal spontaneous impulses.
Epilepsy
A scan where x-rays pass through the head and dyes increase contrast between fluids and brain cells.
CT (Computerized Axial Tomography)
A high resolution image of the brain recording radioactivity of injected chemicals.
PET Scan (Positron-Emmision Tomography)
Uses magnetic detectors to record scans of the brain. Active area of brain has less oxygen recorded.
MRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
What occurs to someone who damages the entire primary cortex?
Completely Blind
Damage to the inferior temporal cortex would cause?
Faceblindness
Damage to part of the color pathway causes? Definition: Recognizing colors after light changes.
Color Constancy
Causes neglect of the opposite side of the body.
Unilateral Neglect
Located in the nucleus. Chemical basis for heredity.
23 individual or 23 paired.
Chromosomes
A fertilized egg.
Zygote
Sections along a chromosome. Direct someones development.
Genes
A chemical that controls the production of RNA.
DNA
A chemical that controls the production of protein.
RNA
Two genes of a pair that are the same.
Homozygous
Two genes of a pair that are different.
Heterozygous
Chromosomes that determine the sex. XX=female XY=male
Sex Chromosomes
A disease resulting in progressive memory loss.
Alzheimer's Disease
Disease resulting in loss of muscle control.
Huntington's Disease
An estimation of the variation of a population due to heredity. From 0=not due to heredity or 1=due to heredity.
Hereditability
Identical heredity.
Monozygotic Twins
Similar genetic makeup.
Dizygotic Twins
Changes in gene frequencies of a species.
Evolution
When individuals with certain characteristics reproduce more successfully, then future generations resemble those.
Natural Selection
Cells that convert energies into signals from the nervous system.
Receptors
Visual receptors covering the back of the eyeball.
Retina
A rigid, transparent structure on the outer surface of the eyeball.
Cornea
Decreased flexibility in the lens resulting in difficulty focusing close up.
Presbyopia
Elongation of the eyeballs resulting in nearsightedness.
Myopia
Flattened eyeballs resulting in farsightedness.
Hyperopia
An increase in pressure in the eyeball.
Glaucoma
When the lens in the eye becomes cloudy.
Cataract
Central area of the retina. For highly detailed vision.
Fovea
Gradual improvement in the ability to see in dim light.
Dark Adaptation
Cells that make contact with other neurons. Vision
Bipolar Cells
Recieve input from bipolar cells.
Ganglion Cells
Ganglion cell axons join to form?
Optic Nerve
Theory that receptor respond to 3 colors. Blue, Red, and Green.
Trichromatic Theory or Young-Helmholtz Theory
Vision is paired opposites. red-green, yellow-blue, white-black.
Opponent Process Theory
Seeing one color after removing the other color.
Negative (Color) Afterimages
Perceiving a color in the cerebral cortex camparison of retinal patterns.
Retinex Theory
Cannot tell one color from another.
Color Blindness
Vibrations of air or other medium.
Sound waves
The frequency of a sound.
Hertz
Perception of sound.
Pitch
The amplitude of sound waves.
Loudness
Snail shaped organ with fluid filled canals and contain receptors for hearing.
Cochlea
Structure within the Cochlea that contains hair cells.
Basilar Membrane
Failure of the bones in the ear that cannot transmit sound to the Cochlea.
Conduction Deafness
Damage to the Cochlea, hair cells, or auditory nerve.
Nerve Deafness
Basiliar membrane produces movement at the same frequency of the sound.
Frequency Principle
Structure in the inner ear. Balance and posture.
Vestibular Sense
Feeling of warmth, skin pressure, cold, pain, etc.
Cutaneous Senses
Refers to the body-sensory system.
Somatosensory System
A neurotransmitter that inhibits release of substance P and decreases pain.
Endorphins
Sense of smell.
Olfaction
Sense of position of the head and limbs in relation to the trunk.
Kinesthesis
Receptors for orientation and movement that are located in fluid filled sacs and contain hair cells.
Vestibular Sacs
When hair cells are bent by body tilt a neual impulse is?
Transduction
Intensity someone can detect a stimulus 50% of the time.
Sensory Threshold
The time of maximum dark adaptation.
Absolute Threshold
Stimuli that can affect behavior even when we do not consciously perceive message.
Subliminal Perception
Tendency to perceive and object even when what strikes the retina changes.
Visual Constancy
Two kinds of Visual Constancy.
Shape and Size Constancy
An object incorrectly perceived to be moving against a stationary background.
Induced Movement
Illusion of movement by a rapid succession of stationary images.
Stroboscopic Movement
Perception of distance.
Depth Perception
Movement of both eyes.
Binocular Cues
Perceive depth and distance with one eye.
Monocular
Determines the development of monocular depth perception.
Visual Cliff
The misrepresentation of a visual stimulus.
Optical Illusions
A rhythm of activity and inactivity.
Circadian Rhythms
When you travel and your internal clock is out of sync.
Jet Lag
Sleep that enables the body to recover from the exertions of the day.
Repair and Restoration Theory
Sleeping and walking in order to conserve fuel and protect us from danger.
Energy-Conservation Theory
Eyes move rapidly, and this sleep is light and heavy sleep.
REM Sleep
A theorist that believes dreams reveal unconscious thoughts and motivations.
Sigmund Freud
Dreams are accidental by-products of arousal during REM sleep.
Activation-Synthesis Theory
Believes dreams are a form of thinking and not overridden by sensory control.
Neurocognitive Theory
Lack of sleep.
Insomnia
Irregular or no breathing during sleep.
Sleep Apnea
Abnormal sleep pattern with extreme sleepiness during the day.
Narcolepsy
Unsettling experiences while sleeping resulting in talking.
Sleep Talking
Occurs in stage 4 sleep and lasts for less than 15 minutes.
Sleep Walking
An unpleasant dream.
Nightmare
State of extreme panic during sleep.
Night Terrors
Excessive unrefreshing sleep.
Hypersomnia
Condition of increased suggestibility
Hypnosis
A suggestion an individual performs after coming out of hypnosis.
Posthypnotic Suggestion
Induced relaxation with special techniques.
Meditation
A class of molecules including methanol, ethanol,and propylalcohol.
Alcohol
A medication that helps people calm down and relax.
Tranquilizers
A medication that causes individuals to feel happy, warm, and content without anxiety and pain.
Opiates
A medication resulting in intesification of sensory experiences, drowsiness, and time passing slow. THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Marijuana
A medication that increases energy, alertness and results in pleasant feelings.
Stimulants
Drugs responsible for inducing sensory distortions. LSD, PCP.
Hallucinogens
Psychologists that believe you should only study observable, measureable behaviors. Not mental processes.
Behaviorists
Russian Scientist. Experimented with dogs to prove conditioning.
Ivan Pavlov
Learning a new response by pairing 2 stimuli. A neutral stimulus and 1 that already evoked a response.
Classical Conditioning
Something that automatically elicits an unconditioned response.
Unconditioned Stimulus
The action that the unconditioned stimulus elicits.
Unconditioned Response
A stimulus in which can be controlled such as a buzzer.
Conditioned Stimulus
The response the conditioned stimulus elicits as a result of training.
Conditioned Response
A process that strengthens a conditioned response.
Acquisition
Repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus. When responses stop producing reinforcements.
Extinction
Temporary return of an extinguished response after a delay.
Spontaneous Recovery
Responding differently to the 2 stimuli based on the result that follow from each.
Discrimination
The extension of a conditioned response from the training stimulus to a similar stimulus.
Stimulus Generalization
What is the term for the definition nearness in time?
Temporal Contiguity
Predictability that the unconditioned stimulus is more likely to occur after the conditioned stimulus than otherwise.
Contingency
The psychologist that studied cats that were placed in a box and had to escape.
Edward L. Thorndike
An event that increases the future probability of the most recent response.
Reinforcement
Responses that closely follow reinforcement will be connected with the situation.
Law of Effect
The changing of a behavior by providing reinforcement after a response.
Operant Conditioning
Responses that include salivation, digestion and affect internal organs. (Classical Conditioning)
Visceral Responses
Responses that include muscles of the body. (Operant Conditioning)
Skeletal Responses
More similar a stimulus is to the original stimulus the more strongly the subjest is to respond.
Stimulus Generalization
A stimulus designating which response is appropriate or not.
Discriminative Stimulus
A change in electrical activity of the skin when under stess.
Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)
Used rats to prove operant conditioning in a Box.
B.F. Skinner
Using successive approximations to change behavior.
Shaping
Reinforcing each behavior with the opportunity to engage in the next behavior.
Chaining
When an event presented strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behavior.
Positive Reinforcement
A response followed by a negative reinforcement.
Punishment
The lack of response leads to reinforcement.
Omission Training
The avoidance of a painful circumstance.
Escape Learning
Reinforcement of the response by absence of pain.
Negative Reinforcement
Exhibit frequent behavior serves as a reinforcer for any less frequent behavior. David Premack.
Premack Principle
A reinforcer that is reinforcing because of their own properties.
Unconditioned Reinforcers
A reinforcer that reinforces because of their prior connection with an unconditioned reinforcer.
Condtioned Reinforcers
What provides evidence that operant conditioning does more than increase behavioral frequencies?
Latent Learning
Reinforcement occurs for every accurate response exhibited.
Continuous Reinforcement
Reinforcement for some responses but not for others.
Intermittent Reinforcement
Reinforcement only after a predetermined number of correct responses.
Fixed-Ratio Schedule
Reinforcement after a variable number of correct responses.
Variable-Ratio Schedule
Reinforcement for the first response after a specified time interval.
Fixed-Interval Schedule
Reinforcement after a variable amount of time has lapsed.
Variable-Interval Schedule
Attempting to change a subjects behavior through reinforcement techniques.
Applied Behavior Analysis or Behavior Modification
Learning about behaviors even before trying them for the first time. Albert Bandura
Social-Learning Approach
The perception that you can successfully perform a task.
Self-Efficacy
Very brief storage of sensory information.
Sensory Store
Temporary storage of information someone has just experienced.
Short-Term Memory
More permanent storage of meaningful information and may last a lifetime.
Long-Term Memory
To produe it?
Recall
An individual receives hints about material to help recall it.
Cued Recall
An association that elicits the memory.
Retrieval Cue
Organizing information into familiar or meaningful units.
Chunking
The ability to state a fact.
Declarative Memory
A memory of a skill.
Procedural Memory
The ease to retrieve a memory depends on the number and type of associations formed.
Levels-of-Processing Principle
Skimming something is harder for you to remember.
Shallow Processing
Reading something then thinking about it in different ways.
Deeper Level of Processing
Survey
Process Meaningfully
Ask Questions
Review
SPAR Method
Remembering a few words from a list usually the first and the last few.
Serial-Order Effect
Tendency to remember the first few items on the list.
Primary Effect
Remembering the last items on a list.
Recency Effect
Information that may help regain memory at a later time.
Retrieval Cues
An association formed at time of learning to help retrieve it later.
Encoding Specificity Principle
Being in the same condition when original learning took place.
State Dependent Memory
A memory aid bases on encoding each item in a special way.
Mnemonic Device
Severe loss or deterioration of memory.
Amnesia
Damage to the hippocampus causes difficulty storing long term memories known as?
Anterograde Amnesia
Loss of memory surrounding events just before brain damage.
Retrograde Amnesia
Prolonged vitamin D deficiency due to alcoholism causes what?
Korsakoff's Syndrome
Recognition that someone is using their own memory.
Explicit Memory
Does not require any recognition that someone is using their own memory.
Implicit or Indirect Memory
A degenerative condition that destroys brain cells and impair memory.
Alzheimer's Disease
Use this to fill in the blanks of a forgotten memory.
Reconstruction
Used to mold the recollection of an event to fit how the event actually turned out.
Hindsight Bias
Moving a memory from the conscious mind to the unconscious mind.
Repression
Thinking or gaining knowledge.
Cognition
Using categories to define objects.
Categorization
Mental images that resemble vision.
Cognitive Maps
A serial process. You must attend to one part after another in series.
Attention
The difficulty in naming a color when it is written in a different color.
Stroop Effect
Understanding the problem
Generating a hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
Cheking the results
Problem Solving
The ability to express a variety of ideas.
Productivity
A system involving converting a deep structure into a surface structure. Not memorzing sentences but using rules to make your own.
Transformational Grammer
Broca's Area and Wernicke's Area.
Areas of the brain important for language.
Inarticulate speech and trouble using and understanding grammer.
Broca's Aphasia

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