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Glossary of Introduction to Environmental Engineering

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Process
A method for doing something, generally involving a number of steps or operations
System
A set or arrangement of things so related or connected as to form a unity or organic whole
Transformation
In EnvE, most processes involve both reaction and mass transfer processes
Natural System
Examples: River, Lake, Watershed
Engineered System
Examples: Water filtration plant, cyclone separator, landfill liner
Definition of Environmental Engineering (Peavy)
Branch concerned with protecting environment from humans, protecting humans from environment, and improving env quality for human health and well-being
Kinetics
Rate at which reaction approaches equilibrium
Gram equivalent weight
Weight that contains one gram atomic weight of available hydrogen or chemical eq.
GEW = GMW/n

N1 * V1 = N2 * V2
Oxidation
Loss of electrons by ion or molecule; oxidizing agent is reduced (accepts electrons)
Reduction
Gain of electrons by an ion or molecule; reducing agent is oxidized (donates electrons)
Speed of rxs
Acid-Base Fast (generally fractions of seconds), then Ox-Reduc, then Precip, then Biological (minutes to years)
Units for rxs
Zero-order: mg/L-hr...C vs time; First-order: 1/time...lnC vs. Time; Second-order...1/C: L/mg-hr
Isotopes
Elements w/same atomic number but different mass numbers
Alpha radiation
2 neutrons, 2 protons
Beta radiation
Decays into 1 neutron, 1 proton
Gamma radiation
High energy, penetrates skin
Material Balance
Accumulation = Input - Output +-Transformations
CMFR
Completely Mixed Flow Reactor: influent flow is instantaneously mixed throughout entire volume
Plug Flow Reactor
Influent flow is mixed vertically and laterally, one dimensional flow

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