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Glossary of Introduction to Cells

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What are the features on the surface of a prokaryotic cell?
Pili, flagella, nucleoid, ribosomes, plasma membrane, cell wall and a capsule.
Where are ribosomes made in a eukaryotic cell?
attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope.
Describe the feature of the nuclear envelope?
double membrane enclosing the nucleus; perforated by pores.
What is chromatin?
material consisting of DNA and proteins; visible as indivisual chromosomes in a dividing cell.
what are the functions of the smooth ER?
lacks ribosomes; it synthesizes steroids, metabolizes carbohydrates, stores calcium in mucsule, and detoxifies poisons in liver.
What are the functions of the rough ER?
has bound ribosomes and produces cell membrane and secretory proteins. products are distributed by transport vesicles budded from the ER.
What is a lysosome? What does it do (it's Function)?
membrane - bounded sac of hydrolitic enzymes that the cell uses to digest macromolecules. break down cell macromolecules for recycling as well as substances injested by phagocytosis.
What is the Golgi apparatus? What does it do (it's Function)?
finishes, sorts, and ships cell products. the cis face of a golgi stack recieves secretory proteins from the ER in transport vesicles. the proteins are modified, sorted, and released in transport vesiclesfrom the trans face.
The Golgi has two faces - what does this mean?
there is a cis-face and a trans-face.
Which organelles have their own DNA?
mitochondria, chloroplasts, and nucleus.
Which organelle uses oxygen?
mitochondria
What is a plant cell made of? what is its function?
enclosed by cell walls, composed of cellulose fibers embedded in other in other polysacchardies and proteins.
what is the extracellular matrix?
Fuction in support, adhesion, movement, and regulation. Animal cells secrete glycoproteins that form the ECM. Important componets are collagen, proteoglycon complexes, and fibronectin attached to intergrins in the plasma membrane.
describe and be able to recognize the internal structure of an undulopodium. Contrast it with the basal body.
long and flexibe for motility.extension of cytoplasm.sourrounded by cell membrane. full of microtubules and motor proteins
What is the difference between cilia and flagella?
cilia usually occur in large numbers on cell surface. flagella has only one on the cell, and are longer than cilia. also, differ in beating patterns.
Why is the membrane described as the fluid mosaic?
membrane is a fluid structure with various proteins embedded in or attached to the double layer of phospholipids.
Describe how lipids move within a membrane?
lipids move laterally within a membrane, but flip-crossing the membrane is rare.
What are glycolipids?
oligosaccharides are covalently bobded to lipids, and form the molecule.

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