Glossary of Intro to Network Terminology

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access controls
imposes controls that allows users access to network resources, usually based on account or a group to which the user belongs.
account names
Strings of letters, numbers, or other characters that idetify a user's account on a network
Active Directory
The directory service environment for Windows Server2000/2003. Includes enough information about users, groups, oranizational units, and other kinds of management domains to represent a complete digital model of the network.
Application server
a specialized network server with the job of providing access to a client/server application and sometimes to the data belonging to that application
Central Processing Unit
THe collection of circuitry (a single chip of most PCs) that supplies the "brains" for most computers.
A computer on a network that requests resources or services from another computer.
A model for computing in which some computers (client) request services and other computers (server) respond to requests for services.
communication server
a specialized network server that provides access to resources for users not directly attached to the network or enables network users to access external resources not directly attached to network.
dedicated server
a network server that acts only as a server and is not intended for regular use as a client machine
directory server
a specialized server with the job of responding to requests for specific resources, services, users, groups, and so on.
a uniquely named collection of user accounts and resources that share a common security database.
domain controller
On windows server 2000/03 networks, a directory server that also provides access controls over users, accounts, groups, computers, and other network resources
domain model
a network based on windows operating system with security and access controls residing in a domain controller
hybrid network
a network in which elements of a server-based network and a peer-to-peer network are in use. Mall workgroups can share files, printers, and other devices with one another in a peer-to-peer fashion.
a network of networks that consists of two or more physical networks. Unlike a WAN, an internetwork resides in only a single location. Because it includes too many computers or spans too much distance, an internetwork can't fit within the scope of a single LAN
an in-house TCP/IP based network for use within a compnay
a collection of computers and other networked devices that fits within the scope of a single physical network and provides a building block for internetworks and WANs
mail server
a specialized server that manages the flow of e-mail messages for network users.
Metropolitan area network MAN
a type of network that uses WAN technologies to interconnect LANs within a specific geographic region, such as a county or a city.
network administrator
the person responsible for installing, configuring, and maintaining a network
Network Information Service (NIS)
a service available on the Linux O.S. that provides a central database for user names and passowrds, which controls user acces to network resources
network medium
a term that usually refers to the material (metallic or fiber-optic) that links computers to the network.
network operating system
a specialized collection of software that enables a computer to communicate over a network and take advantage of a broad range of networking services.
network protocols
sets of rules for communicating across a network, computers must share a common protocol
network resource
any kind of device, information, or service available accross a network.
Novell eDirectory
the centralized database of user, group, and resource information that enables NetWSare servers to handle network logins and resource access requests and to manage resource information for an entire network
personal digital assistants (PDA)
Handheld computers used for personal orginzation tasks
random access memory
the memory cards or chips on a pc that provide working space for the cpu to use when running applications, providing network services, and so on. where ram on a server is concerned, more is usually better
Routing and Remote access service (RRAS)
a software componenet bundled in Windows that combines Remote Access Service (RAS) and Multi-Protocol Routing, in addition to packet filtering, demand-dial routing, and support for Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
a description of how the client/server relationship works: a request from a client leads to some kind of response from a server. (usually, the response is the service or data requested, but sometimes it's an error message or a denaial of service based on security)
a computer with the job of responsindg to requests for serveces or resources from clients on a network
a type of model of networking that requires a server to provide services and resources and to manage and control access to those services and resources
one of the fundamental justifications for networking. in the microsoft lexicon, this term refers to the way in which resources are made available to a network
a metaphorical description of a non-networked datat exchange method; a person, presumably wearing sneakers, copies files on a disk at one computer and then hand-carries the disk to another computer
specialized server
any special function server- an application server, a communications server, a directory server or domain controller, a fax server, an email server, or a web server, among others
people who use computer as standalone systems or to access an network
web server
the combination of hardware and software that stores infroamtion accessible over the internet via the world wide web www.
wireless personal area network (WPAN)
a short-range wireless networking technology used to connect a user's handheld or wearable computing device
workgroup model
the windows name for peer-to-peer network that includes one or more windows based computers
world wide web
most well known aspect of the internet is made up of millions of documents that can be interlinked by using hyperlinks.

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