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Glossary of Intro to Music: Chapter 9

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Concerto
a large composition for orchestra and solo instrument
Concerto Grosso
the main early Baroque type of concerto, for a group of solo instruments and a small orchestra
Movement
a self-contained section of music that is part of a larger work
Ritornello Form
the orchestral material at the beginning of a concerto grosso's movement which always returns later in the piece
Variation Form
a form in which a single melodic unit is repeated with harmonic, rhythmic, dynamic, or timbral changes
basso ostinato
persistant or obstinant bass
Ground Bass
the repeating bass figure
Cadenza
a feature of concertos in all eras that is an improvised solo passage within a larger piece
Fugue
a polyphonic composition for a fixed number of instrumental lines or voices- usually 3 or 4 built on a single principle theme
Subject
the theme of a fugue
Expostion
the beginning of a fugue in which all the voices present the subject in an orderly standardized way
Episode
in a Fugue, a passage that does not contain any complete appearance of the fugue subject
counter subject
the new material when it sticks with the subject accompanying it one way or another througout the fugue
stretto
one subject entry overlaps another entry in time
Inversion
all intervals in the subject are reversed- steps up become steps down and so on
gigue
a dance in compound meter that may have been derived from the Irish jig
Binary Form
a musical form having 2 different sections; A and B
Trio
the secon or B section of a shorter dance (minuets)
Frenche overture
a special preparatory number at the beginning of a suite before the first dance
Overture
a general term for any substantial piece of music introducing a play, opera, or ballet

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