Glossary of Intro to Chemistry - Chapter 4
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- What is the number above the symbols?
- The Atomic Number - the number of protons in a nucleus.
- True or false.
Elements listed in the periodic table is in order of increasng atomic number.
- What are groups?
- groups are vertical columns with similar chemical properties.
- What are the characteristics of Metals?
- 1. Efficient conduction of heat and electricity.
2. Malleability - can be hammered into thin sheets
3. Ductility - can be pulled into wires.
4. A lustrous shiny appearance.
- Where on the periodic table do you find
- a) most elements
b) upper right corner of periodic table
c) by stair-step to right of periodic table.
- True or false.
Most elements are non-reactive and are often found in their natural states in the environment.
- True or False
Noble Metals are relatively unreactive and often found in pure form.
- What are Diatomic Molecules?
- Molecules that are made up of two atoms.
- Which group is made of diatomic molecules?
- Group 7, halogens
- Name the diatomic molecules, and list their symbol and state.
- Hydrogen, H2, Colorless gas
Nitrogen, N2, Colorless gas
Oxygen, O2, pale blue gas
Flourine, F2, pale yellow gas
Chlorine, Cl2, pale green gas
Bromine, Br2, reddish brown liquid
Iodine, I2, Lustrous dark purple solid
- 1. How many elements are liquid in their elemental forms at 25 degrees C?
2. What are they?
3. Which others are close and how close?
- 1. 2
2. Bromine and mercury
3. Gallium and Cesium solid at 25 degrees C, but melt at 30 degrees C.
- What is an ion and how is it created?
- A charged entity. They are created by taking a neutral atom and adding or removing one or more electrons.
- What do you call elements that occur in different forms?
- Allotropes. Solid nonmetal elements are more varied than metals, and different forms may occur. Carbon occurs in three forms.
- What is a cation?
- An ion with a positive charge (lacking 1 or more electrons).
- How are Cations named?
- Use element name and add "cation."
- What is an Anion?
- An ion with a negative charge (or gained 1 or more electrons).
- How are Anions named?
- Add -ide to the root of the name?
- True or False.
Ions can be formed by changing the number of protons.
- When group one metals combine to become ions, they become __________.
- 1+ ions (M+)
- What do reactions between metals and non-metals tend to form?
- Metal Cations and Nonmetal Anions.
- When group two metals combine to become ions, they become __________.
- 2+ ions (M2+)
- When group three metals combine to become ions, they become __________.
- 3+ ions (M3+)
- When group six nonmetals combine to become ions, they become __________.
- When group seven nonmetals combine to become ions, they become __________.
- Metals form _________ (positive or negative) ions.
- Non metals form __________ (positive or negative) ions.
- Most transition metals form ________ (Cations/Anions).
- What is an ionic compound?
- When a metal and nonmetal combines.
- Chemical compounds must have a net charge of ________. For this to occur, what 2 things are required.
1. There must be both cations and anions.
2. the number of anions and cations must be such that the net charge becomes zero.
- Write a formula for the following ionic compound:
Ca 2+ and P 3-
- Ca3P2, since Ca (2+ times 3 =6) and P (3- time 2 = -6) and then cancel eachother out.
- Write a formula for this ionic compound:
CA 2+ and Cl -
- CACl2, because one CA (charge 2+) and two Cl's (charge 1- times 2 = 2-) will zero out.
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