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Glossary of Intro Radiology

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Anatomical Position
Standing upright with arms and palms out.
Axial Skeleton
Trunk,spine, head, pelvis, Ribs
Extremities
Arms and legs
Median Sagittal Plane
Body split right and left halves
Coronal Plane
Body split in half front and back
Horizontal plane
Top and Bottom Plane
Oblique Plane
Any plane at an angle
Anterior
Front
Posterior
Back
Ventral
Front
Dorsal
Back
Superior
Top
Inferior
Bottom
Cephalad (Cephalic)
Head
Caudad (Caudal)
Below - toward the feet
Medial
Toward Middle
Lateral
Away
Proximal
Close
Distal
Far
Submento-Vertical (SMV)
From the chin to the head
Verico-Submental (VSM)
From the head to the chin
Palmer
Palm
Plantar
Sole of the foot
Vertical
Up and down
Horizontal
Flat
Internal
Inside
External
Outside
Longitudinal
Long Axis
Transverse
Right Angle to Long Axis
Supinate
Palm of hand turned up
Pronate
Palm of hand turned down
Evert
To turn the part outward
Invert
To turn the part inward
Extension
To straighten
Flexion
To Bend
Abduct
To move the part away from the midline of the body
Adduct
To move the part toward the midline of the body
Rotate
To turn along one axis
Recumbent
Lying down
Supine
Lying on the back
Prone
Lying on the stomach
Decubitus
horizontal x-ray beam
Fowler's
Lying down with the head raised and feet lowered
Trendelenburg Position
Lying down with the head lower and the feet raised
RAO
Right Anterior Oblique Position

Right front closest to the film
LAO
Left Anterior Oblique Position

Left front closest to the film
RPO
Right Posterior Oblique position

Right back closest to the film
LPO
Left Posterior Oblique position

Left back closest to the film
What is Projections
Describes the path of the central ray (CR) as it exitsthe X-ray tube, goes through the body to the image receptor (IR).
AP Projection
When the central ray enters the front (anterior) surface of the body and exits through the back (Posterior) surface
PA projection
When the central ray enters the back (Posterior) surface and exits through the front (Anterior) surface.
Lateral Projection
a perpendicular central ray enters one side of the body or body part, passes transversly along the coronal plane, and exits on the opposite side.
Oblique Projection
Central ray enters the body or body part from a side angle following an oblique plane.
Axial projection
Along the axis of a part. The ray is angled.
Tangential projection
Touching a curved surface at a single point.
(SID)
Source to image distance
Collimator
x-ray limiting device

Lead shutters control size and shape of the beam.
(CR)
Central Ray
Remnant Radiation
Passes through the body and produces image.
mA
milliamperage
mAs
Milliamperage seconds
kVp
kilovoltage peak
Discovered X-Rays 11/08/1895
Wilhelm Roetgen
First x-Ray Image
Roetgen's wifes hand
Radiology
Deals with radioactive substances for diagnosis and healing
Radiography
Making radiographs
Radiologist
Doctor who interprets radiographs
RT
Registered Technologist
R
Radiographer
CT
Computed Tomography
Analgesics
Relieve pain without loss of consciousness.
Non-Narcotic - asprin
Narcotic - morphine
Anti Coagulants
Inhibit blood clotting

Coumadin - oral

Hepprin - IV only
Emetic
Causes vomiting

Epicak
Anti Emetic
prevents vomiting

Composine
Diuretic
increases urination

Lasix
Vasoconstrictors
constrict blood vessels

Levophed
Five rights of drug administration ?
Right drug, amount,patient,time,route
Routes of drug administration ?
oral, sublingual, topical, parenteral, injection
Types of injections ?
Intravenous, Intramuscular, subcutanious
Crookes Tube
Early cathode tube invented by William Crooke
George Eastman
1884 - Produced rolled paper film
R.L. Maddox
1871 - produced Silver Bromide (film coating)
1901 Nobel Prize
Roentgens Paper "New Kind Of Rays"
Clarence Daily
Edisons assistant who died from radiation exposure.
Thomas Edison
Experimented with Fluoroscopy
The Curies and Henery Bacquel
1903 Nobel prize for work with radium.
MRI
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Bolus
concentrated mass of pharmaceutical preperation
Coagulation
blood clotting
Contraindication
a condition that renders treatment undesirable
Edema
Large amonts of fluid in the tissues
Hematoma
collection of blood in the tissue
Parenteral
Nourishment by IV
Shock
profound hypotension
Venipuncture
punctue a vein
ASRT
American Society of Radiologic Technologists
Ethics
Based on individual conceptions of right and wrong.
Tort
Legal filing to recover damages
Assault
Threat of harm and victim believes it.
Slander
Oral defamation
Libal
Written defamation
IPSA Loquitur
Self evident negligent situation.
Respondant Superior
Employer is responsible for employee.
ALARA
As Low As Reasonably Achievable
R Room
Radiography Room
R/F Room
Radiography / Fluoroscopy Room
Fluorosciopy
Dynamic realtime imaging of structures in motion.
mAs controls what ?
Quanity of x-rays
KVp controls what?
Quality of x-rays
Three types of energy produced by a cathode ray tube ?
Thermal, kinetic, radiant

(heat, moving protons, x-rays)
Percent of heat energy from an x-ray tube ?
99.4% heat .6% x-rays

Not very efficient
PBL
Positive Beam limitation

Adjusts light field to the size of the cassette.
Bucky Tray
Holds x-ray cassette
Technique
Adjusting KVp, mA, sec
Normal KVp range
70 KVp - 120 KVp
Maximum KVp range ?
30 Kvp - 150 Kvp
The main power switch produces x-rays ?

True or false
False
kilo = ?
1000
Milli =
.001 or 1/1000
Termination of exposure should be indicated both ________ and________ .
audibly and visibly
First X- Ray
Roentgen's wifes hand
Fluid escape into surrounding tissue.
Extravasation
Nourishment by IV ?
Parenteral
CHF
Congestive Heart failure
CS
Central Supply
Hx
History
OP
Out Patient
PID
Pelvic Inflamatory Disease
p/o
Post Operative
prn
As needed
pt
patient
Sx
Symptoms
TIA
Transient Ischemic Attack
TID
Three times Daily
TKO
To keep open
TPR
Temperature, Pulse, Respiration
RSNA
Radiological Society of North America
JCAHO
Joint Commission for Accreditation Of Healthcare Organizations
JRCERT
Joint Review Commitee on Education in Radiologic Technology
NCRP
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement
RDMS
Registered Diagnostic Medical Sonographer.
REM
Radiation Equivalent Man
Types Of Shielding
Flat, Shaped, Shadow

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